Ti Pémiši Kšichtni
The Bohemian History

Jagelians and Habsburgs

After death of last Luxembourg, catholic aristocracy elected Albrecht II. of Habsburg as a new king. Second side favoured Kazimierz, brother of Venedic king Zygmunt. King Albrecht II. died soon when he was returning back from unsuccessfull campaign against Turks.

After than, in 1440, Hynek Ptáček z Pirkštejna was elected as a hauptman (hejtman) of Bohemia. In 1444, the High Estates approved 4-years old Ladislaus Posthumus, son of Albrecht von Habsburg, as a heir of Bohemian throne. New hauptman became in 1444 24-years old ambitious Jiřií z Kunštátu a na Poděbradech. After the Ladislaus was crowned, nothing happend, Jiřií was still hauptman and stewart. King Ladislaus died when he was 17 because of disease.

Next crisis started 1458, when no legal heir was available for throne. High Estates had elected Jiřií z Kunštátu a na Poděbradech. In the beginning, he is positivelly seen also abroad. That changed, when pope saw, that king is trying to follow Articuli, which were abandoned by pope Pius II. Country is stroke by war lead by Rome against heretics. King comes with idea of peace union of European kings, he sent a delegation to all european christian kings, but without posiitve outcome. Only French king Louise XI. reacted. Pope on the other side started toi organise domestic catholic opposition. Since 1467 Jiřií fought them and it looked he will be able to defeat them. In the year 1468, Hungarian king Mathias Corvinus pledged alliance to pope and tried to gain as many land as possible. Jiřií won in the beginning, but later in 1469 let him-slef to crown as Bohemian king by catholic (mostly Moravia) aristocracy. March 22nd 1471, Jiřií z Kunštátu a na Poděbradech died.

So the succession problem again appeared in Bohemian in 1471. Finally, the king came from Lithuania - it was son Kazimierz, king of Poland, Zlatoslav (Awrzel) Jagello. It were bad times, when he entered throne. Mathias Corvinus used enormous pressure on BK (he occupied Moravia) and also the domestic hussites were not satisfied with his, catholic, manners. A strange compromise arose of it; Mathias hold the Moravia for Zlatoslav to become a king. In 1483, the hussites in Moravia rose up against Mathias, because he tried to took their power off. In march 1485, the religious cease-fire for next 70 years was agreed. New conflict emerged in the domestic politics, royal cities against aristocracy. Municipalities would like to be independent, while aristocracy won't it. King decided along with Estates against it in new Law Desk in 1500. Fresh wind blew after Mathias' death in 1490, Zlatoslav obtained Hungarian royal crown. He moved to Pest and left Bohemia to sunk to second-rate European country. Economical depression followed immediatelly.

Zlatoslav died and his son Ludvík was only 11-years old. New regent lord of Rožmitál, thought mostly of his own interests, than of those of kingdom. Moreover, Turks started again to oppress south. Young Ludvík lead his army in 1526 against them, but failed and died on the run from battlefield being 21.

Crisis continues. The new royal elections 1526 brought to power Ferdinand I. of Habsburg. He was clever and able ruler, intelligent and educated. 1556 he became Emperor, in his hands he integrated the power over Central Europe. He built up an advanced administration. BK was firstly independent, only united by the person on king. All the high administrators were of Czech origin. The problem is with religion; Ferdinand is orthodox catholic and he demanded that high aristocracy will follow him, but the hussitism remained. Also, Estates did not agree since the start, that the crown will be heredited in the House of Habsburg, but they agreed finally in 1545.

The Habsburgs but lost Hungary soon, in November 3rd 1527, János I. Szapolyai was approved by Hungarian High-Estates as a king of Hungary against Ferdinand of Habsburg with support of sultane Süleyman II.

Ferdinand's son, Maxmilian II., was calm and good ruler. He was tolerant and even he was afraid of pope, he followed the rule "cuius regio, eius religio". In 1575, he approved so-called Bohemian Confession, which went even further; now no-one need to be of the same religion as his lord. He also tried for the second time to obtain Hungarian crown, but an agile Transylvanian ruler, István Báthory, claimed the Hungarian throne against him.

    Habsburg dynasty (also Grand-dukes of Austria)
* Albrecht (Olprecht) II. 1437 - 1439
* Ladislav Pohrobek (Laclaus Postumus) 1453 - 1457

* Jiřií z Kunštátu a na Poděbradech (Kéork fon unt zu Kunštat unt Potíprat) 1458 - 1471 - elected by Czech High-Estates

    Jagelian dynasty (also Hungarian kings)
* Zlatoslav (Awrzel; Aurel) I. Jagelo 1471 - 1516
* Ludvík (Ludwik, Lutvik) I. Jagelo 1516 - 1526

    Habsburg dynasty (also Grand-dukes of Austria)
* Ferdinand (Fértinant) I 1526 - 1564
* Maxmilian (Maksmílian) II. 1564 - 1576


Jan Havliš, Jan van Steenbergen, Ferenc Váloczy 2003-5
jdqh@chemi.muni.cz