Ti Pémiši Kšichtni
The Bohemian History

Kingdom of Bohemian Crown Lands - Luxembourg kings

Year 1310 was a watershed for Bohemian Kingdom. what Jean de Luxembourg must do to became Bohemian king? First, he get married to Elisabeth of Přemyslids, last living representant of the House. Next, he promised, that he will not introduce a foreign aristocrats into High Estates. He promised, he will collect only taxes approved by Estates. Finally, he promised to release his German councilors. Next things were bound to heritage. He was delt with as a "king-foreigner", only a son with Elisabeth could inherit Bohemian Crown. Jean did not like Bohemia, he issued stewards and was coming back only for money. He spent his life abroad on tournaments. Stewart Jan z Lipé (Johann von Leipa) was not a good administrator, since 1333 also Jean's son Karel IV. took part in land administration, first as a Margrave of Moravia. Jean's frequent absence and lack of abilities of Jan z Lipé lead to decay. The relation between king and Estates was bad; king put many royal castles in chattel mortage. In 1318, on High Estates meeting, the aristocracy refused to obey him and only with help of Ludwig of Bavaria he was able to manage that. On the other side, his contacts abroad let him to enlarge the kingdom: he acquired Upper Lusatia and part of Silesia. Since 1335 Venedic king Kazimierz III Grad and also Hungarian king argued with him as did Habsburgs with Přemysl II. Otakar. He agreed to them in exchange for Silesia. His son Karel IV. finished this conflict via marrital politics rahter than diplomacy. Jean de Luxembourg died 1346 in a battle near Crecy on a French side.

During his rule the first chronicle in Czech language was written, so called Dalimilova kronika (Dalimil's chronicles), kign also conducted many crusades to Prussia (1328, 1337, 1344) and in 1344, Prague received an archbishphoric; first archbishop was Arnošt z Pardubic (Ernest von Pardubitz).

Karel entered the Bohemian throne already being Roman king, 1355 he became Roman Emperor. He was the most enlightened rules of that time Europe, he supposrted arts, literature, architecture and church. In the year 1347 he found monastery Na Slovancech where he revived Slavonic christianity (monks were from Bulgaria and Croatia; so called glagolaši). He also found University in Prague 1348. During 60's and 70's of 14th cc E.C. the first complete translation of Bible into Czech appeared under his supervision.

60.-70. léta 14. st.-první úplný staroceský preklad bible. He was also excellent politician, enabling BK to be independent of HRE. In the year 1355 he proposed Majestas Carolina, a code of law, but was not accepted by aristocracy. 1356 he issued Golden Carolina Bull which changed the rules how to elect Roman kings in a favour of majority and Bohemian elector. His success inspired a Veneda, Hungary, Austria and tyrolia to ally against him (1361-1362), but because of his exceptional diplomatic qualities, the coalition was abolished.

His son Václav IV. was crowned to be Bohemian king 1363 and Karel IV. with Rudolf IV. of Habsburg, signed agreement about future heritages. Václav IV. became 1376 Roman king. Karel IV. acquired for BK Lower Lusatia, Silesia, Brandenburg and Upper Pfalz.

Karel IV. was four time married - Blanche de Valois, Anna von Pfalz, Anna Swiednicka and Elisabeth von Pommern.

His successor, Václav IV. became ruler in 18 years of age. His rule was rather bad. He was mediocre, uneducated, pleasure-seeking and uniterested in matters of state. In 1394 is he captured by aristocracy and imprisoned, released and then for the second time captured in 1402. His borther Zikmund stayed behind that. 1400 he was voted down by Electors from the Roman king and emperor thrones. He is definitelly repelled in 1410. Economic situation is getting worse and worse. Ethnic conflicts get more pronounced, between Czechs and Germans, and between Jews and the rest. The papal schizma brought also religious tension. The difference between rich and poors became more and more prominent. The criticism of catholic church started to be heard more often (Jan z Jenštejna (Johann von Jenstein)). Moravian Estates supported Zikmund against Václav IV. The king died in 1419 because of heart stroke.

In 1414, Bohemia was close to civil war. During the last years of not very successfull rule of Václav IV. and reflecting papal schisma, society was polarised. Academics and lower aristocracy called for immediate reforms. Jan (Hons) Hus (1371-1421; died of heart attack) was, among his duties as Universitas Pragensis Carolina rector, a theologist. He wrote opus De ecclesia, in which he stated his aims in church reform, based on previous works of other theologists John Wycliff, Hieronymus Pragensis, Jean Petit and Johann von Falkenberg.

Politically, his conclusions were summarised in Compactata - quatri articuli pragenses (*here* in 1423, *there* 1414):
1. free advocacy of the Divine Word by all officially approved persons,
2. all deadly sins must be punnished regardless of the estate of the sinner,
3. commnion should be given sub utraque specie,
4. church should not rule in secular affairs.

Sigismud of Luxembourg
, king of Hungary and Roman king, took this as his politics in his major aim to solve the problems of Catholic Church. He summoned, after Council of Pisa, the Council to Konstanz, 5th November 1414 - 22nd April 1418, and he used clever diplomacy combined with military threads to let the Council come to conclusions in all points. He made a deal with rebels in Bohemia, that in exchange for Articuli he might become a Bohemian king. Then, his armed men were mostly from Bohemia, under leadership of excellent strategist and tactisist, Jan Žižka of Trocnov (Hons Šiška fon Trocnau).

Council of Konstanz in its sessions solved these basic problems:

causa unionis - papal schisma; solved in 1417 electing new pope Martin V. (Otto Colonna): Johannes XXII. of Pisa (Balthasar Cossa) was dethroned, Gregorius XII. of Rome (Angellus Corrianus) abdicated 1415 and Benedictus XIII. of Avignon (Petrus de Luna) was also dethroned 1417.

- causa reformis in capite et membris - Sigismund was succesfull in this too. Articuli were accepted by the Council (although not seriously taken and fulfilled later). Then, 1419 Sigismund became Bohemian king and 1420 also Roman Emperor.

- causa fidei - heresis must be punished, but the limits changed. Hus and other moderate reformatiors were not found heretic. It was decided, that fight with heresis should be done through disputatio, with respect to the fact that Council of the Church is infallible. This was the base for later rebellion of M. Luther, who strongly opposed the primas papal role and infallibility of the council.

As the result of Articuli, Church was decentralised, but united under pope, a Roman bishop. In 1439, as *here*, pope Eugenius IV. and Byzantine emperor Joannes VIII. Palaeologus unified the Church, and it was supported by orthodox metropolits too (oppo to *here*). Church was now united through idea, not through the might, thus all the early protestantism was more focused on ideological fight than political (no defenestrations in Prague, no hussite revolution). Later brake of this state came with Martin Luther in 1517. Still the reformation had not so strong political background, which fact prevented Europe from 30-years war.

Hussites in Bohemia were just extreme purists by means of Articuli who gave birth to the Bohemian protestants later in 16th and 17th century and later to General Bohemian Church.

Sigismund build a new line of defence in Hungary against Turks after the southern bumper states on Balkane collapsed as a result of Battle on Kosovo Field. It was system of fortresses, which fell down after defeat of Ludwik I. Jagelo, king of Bohemia and Hungary, in 1526.

    Luxembourg dynasty (also Princes of Luxembourg)
* Jan (Jean de Luxembourg; Hons fon Lucämpurk) 1310 - 1346
* Karel (Kárl) IV. 1346 - 1378
* Václav (Vencl) IV. 1378 - 1419
* Zikmund (Sigismund; Síkismunt)1419 - 1437 (also Hungarian king)

Jan Havliš, Jan van Steenbergen, Ferenc Váloczy 2003-5