Ti Pémiši Kšichtni
The Bohemian History

Bohemian (Czech) Kingdom

During the fight between Fillipe of Swabia and his opponent Otto IV. for German throne, in 1198 gained Přemysl I. Otakar hereditary royal title. In 1204, pope Inocent III. approved this title and in 1212, new Emperor Friedrich II. issued so called Golden Sicillian Bula, to implement it into imperial codex of law. Czech/Bohemian king were given following rights: a) Emperor only approves Czech/Bohemian king, not chooses, b) royal title is heritable, c) he must pay 300 lots of silver or issue 300 horsemen to Emperor, when he is crowned, d) king is obliged only to attain imperial gatherings close to Czech/Bohemian borders, e) king is a Roman king Elector, f) Moravia and bishphoric of Prague are indivisible parts of Czech/Bohemian Kingdom. He issued to found new cities and he invited German settlers to come there. Also 1216, he abolished the seniorate. He started 1226 the Czech campaign to incorporate Austria into Czech/Bohemian Kingdom.

His successor, the seconds Czech king was Václav I. His rule was the next step to establishement of medieval Bohemian state. He continued the fight for Donau-region, mostly with Hungarian rulers and Habsburgs. He also managed to protect Eastern Europe form Tataric menace, he defeated them by Lehnice 1241. At the end of his rule, after fight with Béla IV., he ensured that Upper Austria and Lower Austria became part of Czech/Bohemia Kingdom and Steyer became part of Hungary. During his rule, the Czech aristocracy became more and more prominent, especially Rožmberks (Rosenbergs), Šternberks (Sternbergs) nebo Rýznberks (Riesenbergs). They brought chivalry, tournaments, trubadours and minnesängers.

Then, Přemysl II. Otakar entered throne in 1253 and with him the peak of Czech culture before hussitism. His uniqueness was expressed in nickname King of Iron and Gold. During his expansionistic efforts, kingdom had for the last time access to see, Adriatic. Rising star of the king was also mirrored in its ties to Empire; king of Bohemia became an imperial Elector (Kurfürst). His expansion had many directions; 1255 to Lithuania, in East Prussia he found town Královec (Königsberg). In 1260 he repelled again Béla IV. at Kresenbrun and ensured the status quo. 1266, the Chebsko (Egerland) became integral part of Bohemia till today. pripojuje k Cechám . After death of Ulrich von Sponheim 1269 king attached Korutansko (Carynthia), Kraňsko (Crain) and part of nothern Italy. Because of the economic prosperity, the aristocracy became richer and richer, and thus a mighty opposition to him. They were also able to get allied sufficiently to became a serious problem for royal politics. It was just a start of his fall. Combing rise of House of Habsburg since 70's of 13th cc E.C. Rudolf of Habsburg, unknown aristocrat from Schwabia was elected to become a Roman King. It created the tension between him and Přemysl II. Otakar. He started to continuosly exhort Czech king to release all territories he gained recently. He also used the conflict between Czech aristocracy and king. 1276, Rudolf brought his army to Vienna and Přemysl II. Otakar resigned. Then, August 26th 1278, Rudolf defeated Přemysl II. Otakar on Moravian Field, who was slayed in battle. Rudolf of Habsburg became heir of Přemysl's ambitions.

His son, Václav II., did not resign on ambitions on international field. New king solved first the problem with aristocracy. Although his mother (widow of Přemysl II. Otakar) married the leader of them, Záviš z Falkenštejna (Zawisch von Falkenstein), he defeated him and finally executed 1290. During the campaign before new imperial elections he opposed Albrecht of Habsburg and favoured Adolfa of Nassau, untill he found that the candidate refused to fullfil the promise and to return Meissen-land to Czech/Bohemian Kingdom. King's main anmbitions were to hold Venedic and Hungarian crowns. First, 1289, Silesian Wars offered to join Bohemian Kingdom and king accepted. Then, last War died 1296 and Václav II. fought for Venedic crown using promise that he will marry Elisbeta Reiczka; in 1300 it happened. Simultaneously, last Arpadic king died 1301 and also this throne fell into Czech hands. Son of Václav II., Václav III., under name László V, became Hungarian king. This was followed by enormous economic prosperity, especially opening new and rich silver mines. Position of Václav II. was sure since archbishop of Mainz suported him. 1303 the situation repeated; Albrecht of Habsburg attacked diplomatically the king for requiring Veneda and Hungary. Albrecht tried to defeat Václav II. on a battlefield, but he lost the battle at Kutná Hora in 1304, contemporary allied with Czech aristocracy. During rule of václav II. early gothic style entered Czech culture; many castles and churches were built.

After death of his father, Václav III. resigned on Hungarian crown, but he was prepared to fight for the Venedic one. On August 4th 1306, he was murdered in Olomouc (Olmutz) during the prepraration of campaign to Veneda against usurpator Awrel IV. Kiebytl. Last Přemyslid thus died on Czech throne.

Heinrich of Carynthia was a candidate to heir the throne and in 1306 he was elected. But the Roman king, Albrecht I. of Habsburg, wanted to have Czech crown for his son Rudolf. He managed to convince Czech Estates and in the same year Rudolf became the first Habsburg on Bohemian throne. Rudolf married the widow of Václav II. Czech aristocracy saw his first steps and refused to approve the election in royal swear. Rudolf died 1307 due to dysentery during the campaign againt Czech aristocracy. 1307, Heinrich of Carynthia became for the second time the Bohemian King. He was just a bad king and he was after short rule displaced by Jean of Luxembourg, son of the Roman king Henry VII. of Luxembourg.

    Přemyslid dynasty - kings
* Přemysl I. Otakar 1197 - 1230, the first hereditary king since 1212
* Václav I. 1230 - 1253
* Přemysl II. Otakar 1253 - 1278
* Václav II. 1278 - 1305 (also Venedic king)
* Václav III. 1305 - 1306 (also Venedic and Hungarian king)

    intermezzo

* Heinrich of Carinthia (Hajnrich fon Kérntän) 1306

    Habsburg dynasty (also Grand-dukes of Austria)
* Rudolf I. von Habsburg (Rútolf fon Hapšpurk) 1306 - 1307

* Heinrich of Carinthia 1307 - 1310


Jan Havliš, Jan van Steenbergen, Ferenc Váloczy 2003-5
jdqh@chemi.muni.cz