Ti Pémiši Kšichtni
The Bohemian History

Bohemian (Czech) Principality

During IX. and X. centuries, the first national states in Central Europe were found: Přemyslids found the Kingdom of Czech Crown Lands (Bohemia and Moravia), Piasts the Venedic Kingdom (Regnum Venedorum or Rzeń Wenedór), and the Magyars the Hungarian Kingdom.

The first notes on historical princes of Bohemia is establishment of the Prague Castle around 873. At this time, Prince Bořivoj of Přemyslids left Levý Hradec and turned to Prague as a seat of the dynasty. There was already fortress Vyšehrad standind there. Bohemia first began to develop as an independent state in 880, when prince Bořivoj and his wife Ludmila were baptised by Methodius. His son Vratislav successfully defended Bohemia against Magyars.

Grandson of Bořivoj, prince Václav I. the Holy (Wenceslas), reigned later (921-935) as the fabled "good king Wenceslas", and even later, the first patron saint of Bohemia. He was the main chritianiser, he broke the resistence of pagans lead by his mother Drahoslava. He was then murdered 935 by his brother Boleslav I., because he subdued Bohemia to Germans and he pledged to pay high tribute. Boleslav I. fought eleven years with Germans and at the end he was forced to recognise Otto I. as a sovereign.

Boleslav I. the Cruel and his son Boleslav II. the Pious incorporated into Bohemian many surrounding territories: Silesia, Cracowia, Meissen-land, Moravia, Red Russia and west Slevania. After coronation of Otto I. in 962, bohemia became part of Holy Roman Empire. In the year 973, bishopric is established in Prague with bishop Dietmar followe in 982 by Vojtěch (St. Adalbert). Under Boleslav's rule, Přemyslids crush the opposition once for all murdering two concuring famillies; Slavníks and Vršovci. Then Boleslav II. lost Silesia to Venedic king Marek II. Pąpiej in 990. In the year 999, when he passes rule to his son Boleslav III. the Red, the country is weak and getting even weaker. Opposition is trying to exchange him; firtsly for son of Venedic king Wars I.; secondly for his brother Jaromír. Boleslav finally won the internal fight, but lost on international field: Cracowia, Moravia, Meissen-land and then whole Bohemia. Country suffered also by the establishment of archbishphorics in Veneda and Hungary.

Venedo-Bohemian principality did not last long. Marek was quickly dethroned in 1004 by German king Heinrich II. and brothers of Boleslav III., Jaromír and Oldřich, fought long 30 years for throne. The repurgencies between these brothers included castration, blinding and imprisonment. Then, in 1035, came strong ruler, Břetislav I., who at least hold Bohemia and Moravia as integral parts of principality. He lost Silesia and Meissen-land for good. He established so called seniorate, rule that the oldest member of the House of Přemyslids is rightfull heir to throne. He also introduced first local silver currency - denars. His son Spytihněv II. was the next prince and bishop in one person, approved by pope Benedict X. His successor, the second son of Břetislav I., Vratislav II., proved to be right man on a right place. He issued second bishphoric in Olomouc (Olmutz) and he was granted a lifelong royal title for services for HRE. Czechs were allowed to elect their ruler them-selves and later he should be only formally approved by Emperor. Then, lots of weak rulers appeared and land lived with no major change untill Vladislav I., who received for Czech/Bohemian ruler title Imperial Butler. Many internal bickering appeared and frequent wars with Veneds. All this stopped, when Vladislav II., son of Vladislav I., became prince 1140. He took part in II. Crusade and returned successfully home. He also gained lifelong royal title for services for HRE. After his death, the country again fell into dynastic fights. 1189, the title Margrave of Moravia was intoduced for the second oldest Přemyslid as a result of imperial interference into the dynastic problems. It did not help much, even, it escalated the problems. The end to all these things was put by Přemysl I. Otakar in 1198, the first hereditary king of Bohemia.

    Přemyslid dynasty - princes
* Bořivoj ??? - 889
* Spytihněv I. ??? - 915
* Vratislav 915 - 921
* Sv.Václav I. 921 - 929/935
* Boleslav I. 929/935 - 967/972
* Boleslav II. 967/972 - 999
* Boleslav III. 999 - 1002
* Vladivoj 1002 - 1003
* Boleslav III. 1003
* Jaromír 1003
* Boleslav III. 1003

    Piast dynasty
* Marek Chrabrý (Marek II. Pąpiej) 1003 - 1004, king of Veneda

    Přemyslid dynasty - princes
* Jaromír 1004 - 1012
* Oldřich 1012 - 1033
* Jaromír 1033 - 1034
* Oldřich 1034
* Břetislav I. 1035 - 1055
* Spytihněv II. 1055 - 1061
* Vratislav II. 1061 - 1092, non-hereditary king since 1085
* Konrád I. 1092
* Břetislav II. 1092 - 1100
* Bořivoj II. 1101 - 1107
* Svatopluk I. 1107 - 1109
* Vladislav I. 1109 - 1117
* Bořivoj II. 1117 - 1120
* Vladislav I. 1120 - 1125
* Soběslav I. 1125 - 1140
* Vladislav II. 1140 - 1172, non-hereditary king since 1158
* Bedřich 1172 - 1173
* Soběslav II. 1173 - 1178
* Bedřich 1178 - 1189
* Konrád II. Ota 1189 - 1191
* Václav II. 1191 - 1192
* Přemysl I. Otakar 1192 - 1193
* Jindřich Břetislav III. 1193 - 1197
* Vladislav Jindřich 1197


Jan Havliš, Jan van Steenbergen, Ferenc Váloczy 2003-5
jdqh@chemi.muni.cz