Ti Pémiši Kšichtni
The Bohemian History

Bohemian Way II - builiding of future


Anton (Antonius) (*1773 - †1819)
After father’s death, he came to throne being 22 years old, in 1795. His kingdom was only one third of what with his father started his reign. He was enthusiastic and laborious, he admired Napoleon and his political actions in Europe. Because of chance to regain back territories lost to Napoleon's enemies, he declared BK as an ally to France and he was actively working on Napoleon's side in Congress of Vienna 1815 negotiations. He initiated negotiations about Prussia, which should give conquerred Silesia and Lusatia back to BK. He also actively oppossed revisionists, silently supported by Austro-Dalmatian king Franz II., who claimed in contradiction to Pragmatic Sanction that BK must be incorparated back into Austro-Dalmatia. Anton was also in favour of RTC, since BK has had for the long time good relations with RTC. One of his courageous acts was diplomatic push to RTC nobility to rather consider the abolishment of liberum vero facing its further partitioning between Prussia and Russia. Whereas king Anton failed, Napoleon in 1821 succeeded.

During the Congress of Vienna, Napoleon suggested to BK to receive back Silesia and Lusatia in exchange for releasing Hungary as an independent kingdom because of security reasons on the edge of Balkan. Undoubtly, that was a good bargain. Hungary was a hornet's nest with Austrians and Ottomans behind back, so Anton, who believed in Napoleon's politics a lot, agreed. Hungary thus became independent, neither ADM nor BK acquired it, but was still on good terms with BK.

As an answer on possible internal problems, he legalised in 1805 the new Royal Order (Ten Noj Kénikrajchsórtnunk, constitution), creating federation (Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia and Lusatia) in Bohemian Kingdom. Part the the Royal Order was also new official language, Bohemian (Ta Pémiš Šprochna), which was the new unifying tool, as the German language was rejected; mostly not to have any connotations neither to Austria, nor HRE. The system of curiae was introduced into political system. The allegiance to any of the 5 newly established states (aristocracy, clerics, clerks, magistrators, universities) decided about possibility to vote for fixed number of Ten Kénikrát (Royal Council) deputies reserved for each state. Each federative member elected proportional number of deputies (four members > one forth). Out of total 205 deputies, aristocracy elected 100 (4x25), clerics 20 (4x5), clerks 4 (4x1), magistrators 48 (4x12) and universities 32 (4x8), the last one of chancellor, nominated by king. The deputies elected from each federate member composed also federate councils, Ten Lantsrát. He also left the position of Archbishop of Prague to persons out of House of Habsburgs. He had four sons – Jósef, Henrik, Tánijel and Tómas.

Jósef (*1796 - †1856)
Having a good example in his father, in 1819 when he became king, Jósef followed ideas of him. Anyway, the fast development demanded new changes, which the king did not see. In 1848, bourgeois revolution, copying the European trend, stroke also Bohemian Kingdom. King reacted quickly and effectively. He dissolved curiae and introduced political parties, thus every male older than 25 years disposed the right to vote. His brother Henrik found so called Royal Party (Ta Kénikrajchspartaj), becoming the chief of it. In 1848, during the hunt, the king was seriously injured and he abdicated in favour of his younger brother Henrik, being with his wife Anna childless. But Henrik had already a son.

Henrik (* 1799 - † 1851)
He was a king only three years, till 1851, leaving this office to his oldest son Típolt.

The other two brothers of Józef never entered throne. Tánijel (*1801 - †1855) influenced the industry of the land, he was a businessman, owner of several textile industry factories in Pryn. The youngest of brother, Tómas (*1803 - †1820), has committed suicide when he was 17, probably of unfortunate love affair.

Típolt (*1831 - †1919)
One of the most important persons on Bohemian throne, Típolt heavily worked on the diplomatic field starting almost endless line of negotiations, on which end was the neutrality of Bohemian Kingdom ensured by cross-treaties with major European powers. He used political and economical power of the Kingdom, which was rising with international bickering around. He saved the kingdom of the Grand War, which started on February 17, 1914 by Austro-Dalmatian attack on Dalmatian Hercegovina, member of the Triple Entente. The other two members of The Triple Entente, Two Sicilies and Mutenia answered declaring war on ADM. The avalanche of war declarations followed: other members of Triple Alliance - HRE and Hungary - joined ADM and in September 1914 Ottomans Sultanate extended it to Quadruple Alliance. Bulgaria as an answer joined Triple Entente allong with Russia, which saw the possibility to invade Hungary and gain in Ruthenia. Germans get directly involved in 1915 in RTC, which asked Russians to help them agains the thread from west. Throught their alliance system, after declaration of was between Germany and Russia, France and FK get involved in the GW1 too. The whole course of the war was rather messy, full of small local conflicts (e.g. Oltenia rebellion against Hungary) showing rather pitoresque picture of absurd global conflict as it was later described in well-known novel Erich Maria Krammer Ruhe am Westfront. The ended in November 11, 1918 with extensive changes on the map of Europe. The results were not unambiguous. Neither alliance was convincingly victorious, nowadays historicians say, that the November 11, 1918 was signed only cease-fire and that the GW1 was continously followed by acts preceeding GW2 and GW2 it-self.

In this difficults situation, Bohemian Kingdom survived not because of pre-war diplomacy, but only because of their industry, which allowed Quadruple Alliance in Central Europe to hold enough by material and weapons sold to them. BK had tensed relations with both, HRE and ADM, but quite relaxed with Hungary, as one of the greatest Bohemian trade partners. Help to RTC because of good relations between these two countries was sacrifised on altar of Bohemian neutrality. It would be hazardous to declare war on Alliance once BK was completely isolated. It must be said, that HRE and ADM were also much dependent on Bohemian coal and steel.

Interestingly, king financed the expedition to South Africa, to the waterfalls we today know as Diepoldt’s Waterfalls.


Jan Havliš, Jan van Steenbergen, Ferenc Váloczy 2003-5
jdqh@chemi.muni.cz