Ti Pémiši Kšichtni
The Bohemian History

Bohemian Way - struggle for survival


Rudolf (Rútolf) IV. (*1649 – †1670)
He became Margrave of Moravia in 1666 and king in 1669.

After election of Venedian noble Michał Czyraz as a new king of RTC in 1669, Hungarians refused him and Estates voted for Rudolf IV. as a new king of Hungary. Simultaneously, Ottomans launched an attack against Hungary, pressuming it would be weakend by internal political fights.

Albrecht (Olprecht) III. (*1651 – †1723)
Rudolf’s younger brother Albrecht became Margrave in 1669 after his brother became a king, but he was not satisfied with this situation and he committed murder on his brother during war with Ottoman Sultanate at 1670. It looked like an unfortunate incident, so he became king at 1670, absolutistic in fact, ruling ruthlessly. He partially stopped Turks in south Felvidék (Slevania) and was able to hold Hungarian crown, thus he ensured his position. He forced the free municipalities to become administrated by Royal Court. He has had three sons and he legalised the following rule for future; the first born son becomes margrave and later king, the second-born becomes an archbishop of Prague and any other son will serve in army.

Vatican, to interfere into Bohemian matters, found at 1704 a new archbishopric in Olmütz and they put Moravian aristocrat Johann von und zu Schlick as an archbishop. King Albrecht III. had introduced in 1705 his son Dietrich as the highest church authority not only for catholics, but also for Protestants, he took the right to impose the church authorities by his royal decision. He also grabbed the Rome imposed archbishop in Olmütz and let him be executed to demonstrate his power. It helped him to pacify Estates, who tried to find a new ally in Rome. With these his acts, the so called Bohemian Way (Ta Pémiš Vék) started. To ensure his positions against High Estates, he abolished Estate Council (Standesrat) and substituted it with Royal Court only (Königliches Kabinett; 3 court-official and 3 ministers). To further strike aristocracy and nobles, he also abolished in Bohemian Crown Lands (not in Hungary) corvée in 1710 and at the end of his reign in 1721 he also abolished servitude, preparing thus unwillingly good starting conditions for kingdom in the forthcoming age of capitalism.

In Austro-Dalmatian Monarchy, Karl VI. has introduced on 19th April 1713 so-called Pragmatic Sanction, which allows the throne to be herited also matrilinearly. Albrecht III. approved it, including that the Bohemian king has no right to enter the Austrian-Dalmatian throne and vice versa.

Friedrich (Frítrich) I. (*1676 – †1726)
As wanted by his father, Friedrich became in 1701, 25 years old, margrave of Moravia and in 1723, when his father died, he became a king (47). He died too soon in 1726, leaving the Kingdom in difficult situation, because both his sons, older Albrecht (13) and younger Johannes (1), were too young to claim the throne.

Dietrich (Títrich) I. (*1676 – †1747)
Frichdrich’s twin Dietrich was imposed by Rome in 1701 as an archbishop of Prague.

In 1726, when Friedrich died, his brother Dietrich became Bohemian king as a king-regent, and ruled till 1733. When he was 57 years old, he abdicated and left young Albrecht IV. to enter throne.

The youngest brother of Friedrich and Dietrich, Konrad (*1678 - †1707), was well-known general, he died in battle in Felvidék (Slevania) against Turks, becoming a national hero.

Albrecht (Olprecht) IV. (*1713 – †1750)
He ruled 17 years, dying of a strange disease in 1750. During his rule, in 1747, new University was found in Olmütz, Rudolf-Universität, the second to Karl-Ferdinand Universität in Prague. Then, his brother Johannes became king.

Johannes (Hons) I. (*1725 – †1795)
Archbishop Johannes had a difficult choice. His brother died suddenly childless and because of possible foreign intrusion from side of Prussia, he decided to take the power. He abolished celibacy in the newly reformed General Bohemian Church (Ta Ólkmajn Pémiš Kirchna), holding both functions - king and archbishop. It was direct following of Bohemian Way. He got married and being 49 years old, his wife Elizabeth von und zu Sternberg gave him son Antonius.

Rising tension in HRE resulted in aims of Prussia to enstrenghten its possition within HR Empire. To do so, 1766 Prussian king invaded Bohemian Kingdom in a try to capture Silesia and Lusatia. In a decisive battle at Semten, near Pardubitz, better equipped Prussian Army was able to defeat Bohemian Army, even it has almost twice as many soldiers as the Prussian one. Luckily, in a battle near Prague, 1767, Prussia was stopped in further attempts to unify HRE including Austria and Bohemian Kingdom. The peace was sour for Bohemians, they lost Lusatia and Silesia, but remained independent.

In the same moment, following the secret agreement between ADM and Prussia, Austro-Dalmatians had invaded Hungary. Bohemo-Hungarian Army, struggeling for survival in nothern Bohemia, was not able to stop them. ADM in a short time conquerred all the Hungarian territory, which was not under Ottomans rule.

These two fatal failures led Johannes to think more intensivelly about development of the country to sustain any possible future aggression.


Jan Havliš, Jan van Steenbergen, Ferenc Váloczy 2003-5
jdqh@chemi.muni.cz