niitika Nasino

history of Nassland

new constitution; under mother-wing of Sweden
16th - 18th cchist3

    The political climate in the beginning of XVI. century was difficult for Nashsland. Novgorod left the Hansa according to the degree of Ivan III. in 1494. The next Russian tzar, Vassilij III., changed direction of Russian foreign affairs interest to south; to defeat Golden Horde and conquer as many of its former dependends as it will be possible. In the year 1500, king Gviizdslav was elected, the last elected king in independent kingdom. Sweden started to threaten Kindgdom Nashsland, the main goal of king Gustav Vasa was to incorporate Nashsland into Swedish Empire. Once he defeated Danes, he turned him with full force against Nashsland. King Gviizdslav asked other members on Hanseatic league to join him in defence against Swedish threat; except of west cities and RTC, all other supported Nashsland financially or with troops.

    In the year 1532, Sweden defeated Nashsland in several battles and sized Sedigord (later Viborg). So, since 1532 till 1550, Nashsland was part of Swedish Kingdom. This period is called interregnum (Bezıredärenö), since there were no Nashian kings.

    After the political situation got calmer in Nashsland (in Swedish Nordvendaland, in sveticised Nashian Nörtvendısk), in 1550, Sweden introduced the new written Law (Grundlag / Lak, Nov Zakon), creating the constitutional Nashsland Kingdom under direct Swedish protectorate; Nashsland became protectorate of Sweden, its feudatory. There was naŝısk king elected, but along with him also the Swedish lord-protector was present, who was appointing chancellors/prime ministers. The status of NK was Associate Feudatory. The first king was Damir, the lord-protector was Per Inge af Östersund. There was an one-chamber parliament, Redärskä Rada (Royal Council), re-constructed older estate-council. The Parliament members were not elected, but appointed through feudatory, territory based system, copied form estate-council. Nashsland Kingdom served a role of buffer between Russia, rising in power again, and Sweden, which needs to protect its interests in Nothern continental Europe.

    Swedish reformist priest Johann Handström, in 1557, came to reform an older syncretic religion of Nashsland into more christian-like religion called Viira (faith, belief). Names like Biilbogass, Mokoŝa and Svaroŝŝiss were substituted with Bogass/Gostpod (God), Matera (Mother) and Suun Bogassa (Son of a God). The religion tolerance of Swedish administration allowed to better manage the situation in occupied Nashsland.

    Since defeating Russians in 1557, Sweden continued the war with Hanseatic League, started in 1532. East Estonia fell in 1561, West Estonia 1581, Lübeck 1571. Russian tzar Ivan IV. has acknowledged all these acquisitions and new Swedish borders in 1583. Further on, Sweden anexed most of Livonia (1621) and Curland (1630). Sweden conquered them at the expense of the (German) Livonian order, a close relative of the Teutonic Order. Untill 1630, Sweden took over almost all former Hanseatic cities and members on the Baltic Sea shore, except of those in RTC. The peace in 1631 resulted in weakend Hansa and strong Sweden. The Big Baltic Wars had decisive winner - Sweden, new great power. To take the advantage of the conquest, Sweden decided to hold its positions in the Hansa system.

     Under Swedish protectorate, Viborg (Sedigord) was forced to leave Hansa. After the Øresund incident, in 1653, although it was still functional, the Hansa was in difficult situation: the west part, consisting of e.g. Hamburg, Bremen and several Dutch cities, survives without many problems. The east part was weakend by the Swedish conquest and Danish policy. Thus, the Hansa splitted in that time. From the initiative of Danzig and RTC, two major players in east part of Hansa, in this region it was re-constituted as Baltic League. Viborg (Sedigord), as other former Hanseatic cities now in swedish Balticum (Reval (Tallinn), Dorpat (Tartu) and Riga), were not members untill 1721, when in peace process of Nystad, Sweden was forced by RTC to join Baltic League along with its dependecies, e.g. Nashian Kingdom.

     The Swedish endeavour for domination on nort and east let to the Great Nother War. Initially, Swedish army under leadership of king Karl XII. was able to defeated Russian at Narva in 1700. Then he turned against RTC and Saxony. Later, after several successfull Swedish campaigns against Republic of Two Crowns and Russia, the hunger and exhaustment has decimated his army. To get the support of Belarussian and Ukrainian defiance, he decided to capture city of Poltava. Tsar Petr I. knew, that this might activate anti-Russian opposition, so it must be prevented. 1709, he summoned his army and crushed Swedish army; Karl XII. fled to Turkey not to be captured. Then, after crash of diplomatic negotiations with Prussia to join anti-Swedish coalition, he decide to occupy some Swedish territory to have a ground for direct negotiations. With 16 000 soldiers he capture almost all Nashina and Finland, being able to threaten Sweden itself, what he did during years 1719-1720.

     During the period of occupation, 1713-1721, Nashian nobility searched for possibility of gaining independency on Sweden via Russian influence. Tsar planned not to give Nashina independency, but would rather incorporate it into Russian Empire. That is the reason, why this way was not widely accepted among nobility and in Royal Council, which fled to Bërgıgord. Swedish protectorate that time was not seen as an oppression, whereas Russian absolutism was not attractive for Nashian nobility. After Nystadt Peace, lots of rich Nashians choose to left ceded territories rather than to stay in Russian Empire.   

     Sweden lost the Great Nothern War and with it, it also lost in Treaty of Nystadt Livonia, Estonia, Karelia isthmus till Ozëro Nevö (Ladoga) near Viborg (Sedigord) and Ingria. For almost 100 years it was the last war against Russia. Nashsland's role of the Swedish fortress to prevent any possible intrusion of Russians more north became more and more prominent, resulting in tougher political regime. That time, Nashians proved to be loyal, e.g. Nashian cavalry was famous in Swedish army. Later, they tides to Sweden were weakend because of Great Nothern War results.

    At the end of XVII. century, the black plague stroke again in 1670 in Sedigord. It was not so bad as 300 years ago, but it severed the city and port. In 1709 the next misery came; the femine stroke almost all Europe.

    During the second half of XVIII. and beginning XIX. century, Nashsland culture advanced a lot, especially during the National Uprise period. The most of the inovative belletry pieces, dramata and poetry was written in this time of national renessaince.

last update 190807, Jan Havliš
acknowledgments: Kristian Jensen, Jussi Santeri Junttila, Jan van Steenbergen