Viikqnnosf

(Nosphian or Language of Us)



     I am creating this language for two different purposes, one is my novel Hw Nehhinaf (Song about the Nothern Star) and for the Andrzej Sapkowski Club, where it is used as a language of vampyres; more about vampyres in AS Club (in Czech): Breviary of a Modern Vampyre, Collection of Interpretations about Vampyres. This language is mostly inspired by polysynthetic languages, like Inuit, and tends to look rough and difficult.

Phonemics and phonetics
Sounds of speech

     Nosphian uses 54 sounds of speech (phonemes):

VOWEL
SHORT                                                                                    LONG
FRONT
CENTRAL
BACK
 
FRONT
CENTRAL
BACK
/ i /
/
/ u /
HIGH
/ i: /
/ : /  
/ u: /
 
 / e / , / y /
/ o /
MIDLLE
  
/ e: / , / y:
/ o: /
 
/ a /
 / / , / /
LOW
 
/ a: /
 / : / , / : /

CONSONANTS - NOISE
Created OCLUSIVE SEMIOCLUSIVE CONSTRICTIVE
Heard EXPLOSIVE AFRICATIVE FRICATIVE
BILABIAL / p / , / b /    
LABIODENTAL     / f / , / v /
PREALVEOLAR / t / ,  / d / / c / / s / , / z /
VELAR / k / , / g /   / X /
GLOTTAL     / h /
                         In the pair, the first one is voiceless, the second one voiced.

CONSONANTS - SONORS
Created OCL.- nasal CONSTR.- lateral CONSTR.- vibrative
Heard EXPL.- nasal FRICATIVE VIBRATIVE
BILABIAL / m /    
PREALVEOLAR / n / / l / / r /
            + long consonants

Orthography and Pronunciation

    
     Nosphian uses alphabet for writting down the sounds of speech. For the internet presentation, the version of Latin alphabet with umlaut diacritics is used.

     Alphabet contains 18 graphemes for vowels: a /a/, aa /a:/, e /e/, ee /e:/, //, /:/, o /o/, oo /o:/, //, /:/, u /u/, uu /u:/, i /i/, ii /i:/, y /y/, yy /y:/, //, /:/ and 37 graphemes for consonants : b /b/, bb /b:/, p  /p/, pp  /p:/, q /ka, k/, c /c/, cc /c:/, d /d/, dd /d:/, t /t/, tt /t:/, g /g/, gg /g:/, k /k/, kk /k:/, h /h/, hh /h:/, x /X/,  xx /X:/, v /v/, vv /v:/, f /f/, ff /f:/, z /z/, zz /z:/, s /s/, ss /s:/, l /l/, ll /l:/, m /m/, mm /m:/, n /n/, nn /n:/, r /r/, rr /r:/, j /þ/, jj /þ:/.
     Graphem q is read /ka/ before consonant and /k/ before vowel - qnosf /kanosf/ and qoos /ko:s/.

 
 
Syllabilics

    
     Basic element of syllable in Nosphian is vowel in a contrast with consonant. Additional possibilities is vowel alone or syllable containing three sounds (symbols used: V - vowel, C - consonant, N - nasal (m, n), L - liquids (r, l)): V, CV, VC, LC, CL, CVL and CVN.



Morphology

    Nosphian is polysynthetic and flective language with some analytic features.



Nouns
    

     Gender
     Nouns explicitly express gender using defined prefix only when it is not inherit in the meaning of the word.

     Number
     Nosphian knows singular and plural. Singluar has no marking, plural is marked by prolonged initial sound of speech  (brother - nosf [nosf], brothers - nnosf [n:osf]). If the initial sound of speech is already long, it becomes extremely long, orthographically, only one new letter is inserted and it is connected using apostrophe to the digraph of long sound of speech (book - oos [o:s], books - o'oos [o::s]).

     Declination
     Nosphian uses ??? cases in the form special affixes. Simpliest vocative is expressed using prolongation of the terminal sound of the speech. It is managed in the same way as plural marking (lord - lo [lo], lords - loo [lo:], voice - enn [en:], voices - en'nn [en::]).

    Further, Nosphian has set of nominative endings, which are connected to casual postfixes; if there is a noun in nominative connected with noun in locative with postposition il (on), nominative ending is w (~ whereon; brothers on Erath - nnosfw erathil). Other endings are ew (~ wherefrom; with postfix un /out of/), aw (~ where). Some postfixes are not connected with nominative endings, mostly modal, af (about), but these undergo umlaut when initial vowel coincides with ending wovel of derived word (dd - ice, ddaf - about ice; eina - Northworld, einaf - about Northworld); a > ; o > ; u > ; i > y; y > ; e > i.

    Attributive genitive is expressed using connective infix q, (moolenn - strong voice, ennqmool - voice of strength).


 
 

Adjectives

     Comparison of adjectives
     Nosphian adjective take special prefixes or affixes when compared, depending on actual syllabilic structure of the word. If the words ends with VC or CV, this is doubled in comparative and the wovel takes umlaut (ta - new, tat - newer, ereb - true, erebib - truer). If the ending is LC or NC, but initials are VC or CV, this is doubled in comparative and the wovel takes umlaut (alp - loyal, lalp - more loyal).

     In superlative, special connective infix j is inserted between extension and word root (ta - new, tajt - the newest, ereb - true, erebjib - the truest, alp - loyal, ljalp - the most loyal).


 

Pronouns
     Personal pronouns
     Personal pronouns ...

 

Numerals
     Cardinal numerals
    
 
 
Verbs
     Conjugation
    

     Voice
 
 

       To be continued... :-)