Lesson One

Ejnlik it-Lern-rajttyrin

     Ceindian, or in abbrev. Cytung, is quite different in spelling from English. Let's have a look where are the differencies. The symbols in the dashes will be used in next lessons for the pronunciation explanations.
 


Vowels
  Cytung contains 9 vowels. Some of them you know in English:
     a /a/- is like "u" in "cup". It is short and closed, do not try "a" of "cat".
     e /e/ - is this "e" of "men", also short...
     i /i/ - represents "i" of "kiss". Need I note that it is short one?
     o /o/ - sounds like "o" in "song",
     u /u/ - this one is "oo" of "cook"
     y /@/ - and finally something a bit strange, this one sounds like "a" of an indefinite article, but it can be sometimes ommitted (and not only in pronunciation): samyn /sam@n, samn/- to get together, it-samnin - the meeting /samnin/.
     There are also some prolonged variants of short vowels. To express them in text, Cytung uses digraphs (you know them, it is e.g. ph of English, read /f/):
     ej /e:/ - it is long "e", English doesn't contain lots of them, may be like "e" in "to abet", do not mistake it with broad one, e.g. "a" in "hat".
     ij /i/ - here it will be simplier, it is long "i", like "ea" in "cheap".
     uw /u/ - and at the and the long "u", like "oo" in "goose".

     Cytung does not have long "a" (of "father") or long "o" ("aw" of "saw"). On the other hand it contains special digraphs for so called diphthongs. Do not panic, you also know them from English:
     aw /AU/ - it is similar to "ou" of "out". Take care, the "u" sound is less stronger than the "a" sound.
     ow /OU/ - it near to "o" in "over". Here it is the same, "u" is not so strong.
 

     There are some sounds on the halfway from vowels to consonants: glides. Cytung does have two, similar to English:
     w /U/ - totally the same as in English
     j /j/ - it is like English "y".
 

         Consonants

     Cytung contains 18 of them. There no great differencies between English and Cytung in pronunciation. With b /b/, d /d/, f /f/, h /h/, l /l/, m /m/, n /n/, s /s/, v /v/ it is totally the same as in English in the beggining of the word. Slight differency is with p /p/, c /k/, t /t/- they are not aspired, so no "c" of "cat" /khat/, and r is like the Spanish one, not the American. Non-English speakers do have advantage. Some consonants are writen in the different way, but you know them: x /S/ is "sh", tx /tS/ is "ch" in "cheap", dx /dZ/ is "j" of "joke" and þ /T/ is the "th" of "thick".
     In some local variants of Cytung you may meet "ð" (the "th" of "this"), "z" ("z" of "zero"), "ö" or "æ" both broad "e" ("a" of "cat").


     There are two exceptions out of the pronunciation rules. In the future lessons you will found, that two, one after one, following vowels are separated:
     1) if are these vowels diferent, put between them hMe - I, o-Meho - I (subjective case), read mostly /omeo/ or /omeHo/, where H is a light aspirated "h".
     2) if these vowels are same, put there j: Me - I, e-Meje - me (objective case), read mostly /eme'e/ or /emeJe/, where J is a light "j".
 


Stress

     The stress /'/ in Cytung appears on the penultimate syllable, not counting final particles. Compound words contain dual stresses; each word of the compound is stressed as it stands alone "it-Cejndij-tung" /it'kejndi:'tung/.
 
 
 

Read carefully and loud:

    1) it-Alhejm /it'al'he:m/ - the universe, it-Awje /it'AUje/ - the eye, awld /'AUld/ - old, it-Lijg /it'li:g/ - the organization, brajd /'brajd/ - to spread, byw /'b@U/ - to exist, eryst /'er@st/ - the first, cojn /'kojn/ - to dominate, it-Majbow /it'majbOU/ - the list.

    2) it-Swix /it'sUiS/ - the gap, aþal /'aTal/ - esteemed, it-Dxi /it'dZi/ - the script, þuhahir /Tu'ha'hir/ - you two, it-Gacxuhir /it'gakSuHir/ - the study, it-Dowxutxin /it'dOU'SutSin/ - the leader.

    3) it-Vijsansamnin /it'vi:san'sam@nin/ - the research institute, it-Txijsajgulad /it'tSi:saj'gulad/ - the micronation, conitava /koni'tava/ - Ceindian greeting, it-Glazawje /it'glaz'AUje/ - the pupil, it-Blawmizustejn /it'blAU'mizu'ste:n/ - the emerald.
 

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