kolsikuissuka

phonology

     The evolution of Nassian phonology is described in the tikekä kolsikuissuka Nasiko (historical phonology of Nassian).

     The evolution of Nassian writting systems is described in the tikekö certömö Nasiko (history of Nassian alphabets).


     The modern Nassian alphabet has 56 letters; 14 single graphemes, 10 dighraphs, each representing a single phoneme:

a  aa  e  ee  i ii  k kk l  m  n  o  oo p  pp r  s  ss  t  tt u  uu  c  cc

     4 single graphemes with diacritics, 10 dighraphs with diacritics, each representing a single umlaut vowel:

ä  ää  ë ëë ö  öö  ü  üü

     and 18 graphemes with diacritics, representing so called over-long vowels:

á  a̋  ó  ő  é  e̋  í  ú  ű  à  ȁ  ò  ȍ  è  ȅ  ì  ù  ȕ


1 - kolsiki (vowels)

a [a] - as English "cup" but more open
aa [aː] - as English "rather", long
ä [æ] - as English "bad"
ää [æː] - long version of ä
á [aːˑ] - semi-overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, long and short
[æːˑ] - semi-overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, long and short
[aːː] - overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, both long
[æːː] - overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, both long
e [e] - as English "den"
ee [eː] - as English "hair"
ë [ɑ] - weird Nassian vowel, open mouth to say "e" but say "a" or "o", similar to Estonian "õ"
ëë [ɑː] - long version of ë
é [eːˑ] - semi-overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, long and short
[ɑːˑ] - semi-overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, long and short
[eːː] - overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, both long
[ɑːː] - overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, both long
i [i] - as English "kiss"
ii [iː] - as English "pea"
í [iːˑ] - semi-overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, long and short
ì [iːː] - overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, both long
o [o] - as English "long"
oo [oː] - as English "law"
ö [œ] - similar to German "ö", open mouth to say "o" but say "e"
öö [œː] - long version of ö
ó [oːˑ] - semi-overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, long and short
[œːˑ] - semi-overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, long and short
[oːː] - overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, both long
[œːː] - overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, both long
u [u] - as English "put"
uu [uː] - as English "mood"
ü [ʏ] - similar to German "ü", open mouth to say "u" but say "e"
üü [ʏː] - long version of ü
ú [uːˑ] - semi-overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, long and short
[ʏːˑ] - semi-overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, long and short
[uːː] - overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, both long
[ʏːː] - overlong vowel; consists of two vowels following without brake, both long
 

2 - sukolsiki (consonants)

k [k] - as  English "c" in "cat", but
kk [kː] - long consonant (geminate) "k"
l [l] - as English "l" in "let", little bit softer
m [m] - as English "m"
n [n] - as English "n"
p [p] - as English"p", but not aspired
pp [pː] - long consonant (geminate) "p"
r [r] - trilling, as Scottish "r"
s [s] - as English "s"
ss [sː] - just long hissing "s"
t [t] - as English "t", but not aspired
tt [tː] - long consonant (geminate) "t"
c [þ] - as English "th" in "thin"
cc [þː] - long consonant (geminate) "c"

3 - pirseenkü (accent)

     The Nassian has basic accent on first syllable, cenätä [ˈþe-næ-tæ].
     Composed words, containing second root of stem, preposition and/or emphatic article, had secondary accent. This accent is located on sufixes or second roots, but not on prepositions, Rookokortu [ˌroːkoˈkortu] - Borgå, pirtomutim [pirˈtomuˌtim] - by that house.
     Originally, the movable and free accent ECSL was fixed in EAN on first syllable under Finno-Ugric influence. In some dialects, the old ECSL accent is archived in the phenomenon called semilong consonants; ultimate consonant in open root terminal syllable (-CV) are prolongated: e.g. rooka (river) [ˈroːkˑa].


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last update 180807, Jan Havliš
acknowledgments: Ferenc Valoczy, Evan Gallagher, Jiří Fišer, Jiří Rejzek
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