b-Antapa tfo Qin

(Antapa or Dzinnee)


     In the beginning, this language was pure fun. I was fascinated by introflective languages, like Hebrew and Arabic, and I wanted to create something similar, but not too similar. Later on, when I started to write my novel Hw Nehhinaf (Song about the Nothern Star), I decided to use this language for the southern race of the inhabitants of its world. The language has two faces, ornamental and time-wasting eminent one and the second somehow malicious and fizzing. Compare just the name of the language in one: b-Antapa tfo Qin (The Communication Tool of the Qin Nation) and just Antapa or Qin, for the second face.

Phonemics and phonetics

Sounds of speech

     Antapa uses 29 sounds of speech (phonemes):

VOWEL
SHORT                                                                                    LONG

FRONT
CENTRAL
BACK
 
FRONT
CENTRAL
BACK
/ i /
 
/ u /
HIGH
/ i: /
 
/ u: /
/ e /
/ @ /
/ o /
MIDLLE
/ e: /
 
/ o: /
 
/ a /
 
LOW
 
/ a: /
 

CONSONANTS - NOISE

Created OCLUSIVE SEMIOCLUSIVE CONSTRICTIVE
Heard EXPLOSIVE AFRICATIVE FRICATIVE
BILABIAL / p / , / b /
LABIODENTAL / f / , / v /
PREALVEOLAR / t / , / d / / c / , / dz / / s / , / z /
VELAR / k / , / g / / X /
GLOTTAL / h /
     In the pair the first one is voiceless, the second one voiced.

CONSONANTS - SONORS

Created OCL.- nasal CONSTR.- lateral CONSTR.- vibrative
Heard EXPL.- nasal FRICATIVE VIBRATIVE
BILABIAL / m /
PREALVEOLAR / n / / l / / r /

Orthography and Pronunciation

     Antapa uses alphabet for writting down the sounds of speech called b-Etipom tfo Qin. For the internet presentation, the version of Latin alphabet with acute diacritics is used.
     Alphabet contains 10 graphemes for vowels: a /a/, e /e/, i /i/, o /o/, u /u/, /a:/, /e:/, /i:/, /o:/, /u:/ and 18 graphemes for consonants : b /b/, p  /p/, q /dz/, c /c/, d /d/, t /t/, g /g/, k /k/, h /h/, x /ch/,  v /v/, f /f/, z /z/, s /s/, l /l/, m /m/, n /n/, r /r/. Vowel /@/ has no graphem of its own, it appears only after voiced consonants at the end of the word.
     Antapa has some form of vowel harmony. That means, that there are some rules, which control the appearance of the vowel, in dependence of the other vowel's quantity and quality. The symbol of asterix (*) is used in the text to appoint on the adjustable vowel.
     1) The ending vowel of the particle or monosyllabilic root is given through the initial vowel of the main three-vowel root (mean article b*: b-antapa, be-tepo). Generally, the quantity is changed from long to short and vice versa, the rest is as follows:
 

particle (*)
e
i
e
u
o
root
a
e
i
o
u

     2) While the pronoun or adjective is declinated, with the specific affix, it also takes additional vowel of the same quantity and quality as the root or first vowel is. This is also combined with consonatial harmony, where final voiced consonants are changed for unvoiced when there is any affix present (I - dag, my - daksa or thou - vez, thy - veses, where -s*/-*s is possessive affix, but we - dvas, our - dvass).

Syllabilics

     Basic element of syllable in Antapa is vowel in a contrast with consonant. Additional possibilities is alone vowel or three sounds containing syllable (symbols used: V - vowel, C - consonant, N - nasal (m, n), L - liquids (r, l)): V, CV, VC, LC, CL, CVL and CVN.



Morphology

    Antapa is introflective language. Words, such as nouns, adjectives and verbs, compose of three-vowel root  (V/N/-V/N/-V/N,L/), carrying general meaning (e.g. an-a-a: to speak) and of two-consonantial infixes (-Frontal-Reversal-), which serve to express grammatical properties (e.g. -t-p-: agentive, singular). Other word classes (pronouns, adverbs and numerals) are created using monosyllabilic roots. Antapa contains besides those modified roots also alone-standing particles (g* - actor article).
     Roots, modified by infix or particle, creates word (to speak - ansapar, the speaking - antapa, language - b-antapa, speaker - g-antapa).

Nouns

     Gender
     Nouns explicitly express only animate gender of the biological nature: feminine az (woman - emtipon-az /'emtiponaz@/) and masculine ok (man - emtipon-ok /'emtiponok/).

    Number
     Antapa knows singular and plural.Singluar uses front infix -t-R- (house - pe-tepo), plural  -z-R- (houses - pe-zepo).

    Declination
     Antapa uses 11 cases in the form of reversal infix: agentive (case of the active subject or naming case) -F-p-, facitive (case of the passive subject) -F-g-, causative (case of the direct object) -F-b-, addressive (case of the indirect object or directing case) -F-c-, partitive -F-x-, attributive  -F-f-, possessive -F-s-, mediative  -F-h-, agitative (case of movement) -F-t-, locative -F-d- and temporal  -F-v-.

Pronouns

     Personal pronouns
     Personal pronouns asign the role in the communication: speaker (I) - dag /dag@/, listener (thou) - vez /vez@/ and mentioned person (he, she, it) - sq /sdz@/ + gender particle (sc-az, sc-ok). Extension to these basic pronouns creates the other personal pronouns: speaker and other persons (we) - dvas, listener and other persons (you) - ves, mentioned persons (they) - sic + gender particle.

    Pronoun declination
    Personal pronouns are declined using the reversal infix as an affix, generaly in the form -R* / -*R: I - dag, my - daksa, to me - dakca, me - dakba, etc.

Numerals

     Cardinal numerals
     Antapa uses numerical system based on 20 and also it does not uses Arabic numeral graphemes.These are basic numerals:
O - aci, 1 - so, 2 - uf, 3 - l, 4 - qu, 5 - eda, 10 - uk, 20 - uzu, 400 - gi, 8000 - ov, 160000 - ado, 3200000 - t.
     Other numerals are created using conecting particles n*- (multiplied by), t*- (minus) and k (plus) according to the following rules:
6, 7, 8, 9: 6 - edi-k-so (five plus one, 7 - edi-k-uf, 8 - edi-k-l, 9 - edi-k-qu,
11, 12, 13, 14, 15: 11 - uki-k-so (ten plus one), 12 - uki-k-uf, 13 - uki-k-l, 14 - uki-k-qu, 15 - uki-k-eda,
16, 17, 18, 19: 16 - so(-n-uzu-) tu-qu /one (multiplied by twenty)minus four/, 17 - so(-n-uzu-) ti-l, 18 - so(-n-uzu-) t-uf, 19 - so(-n-uzu-) te-so,
41 - uf(-n-uzu-k-) so /two (multiplied by twenty plus) one/
1538 - l(-ni-gi-k-gi-) tu-qu (-n-uzu-k-uzu-) t-uf /three (multiplied by four hundred plus) (four hundred) minus four (multiplied by twenty plus) (twenty) minus two/

Verbs

     Conjugation
     The basic form of the verb in Antapa is interrogative, expressed with affix -r, particle -fe changes it to indicative positive, affix -v to indicative negative.
     osupor - to go (-F-s-r determines the dictionary infinitive)
     osuhor-fe - I go or osuhor-v - I do not go,
     osuxor-fe - thou goe'st,
     osubor-fe - (he) goeth, osudor-fe - (she) goeth, osukor-fe - (it) goeth,
     osuzor-fe - we go,
     osucor-fe - you go,
     osuvor-fe - (they-males) go, osuqor-fe - (they-females) go, osugor-fe - (they) go.

    Voice
    Antapa expresses voice using speacial kind of noun cases of the subject: active voice using agentive -F-p- and passive voice using facitive -F-g-:
     pe-tepo sevo-fe. - They build the house.
     pe-tego seko-fe (emzipon-ok). - The house is built (by men).
 

    Tense
    A. has three basic tenses: present, past and future.
    Future tense is generally marked -h-R- and expresses aim.
    Ohuhor-f if pe-teho. - I will go into house.
    Future tense can also express wish (ih*-), polite wish (ihx*-), demand (ihax*-), exhort (ihx*-)
. Special case of future tense is expression of believe h*-
.

    Present tense is generally marked -s-R- and expresses actual action.
    Osuhor-f if pe-teho. - I am going into house.
    Present tense can express supertemporal actions too using s*-.

    Past tense is generally marked -p-R- and expresses any action finished.
    Opuhor-f if pe-teho. - I went into house.
    Past tense can express mediation of information or unsure knowledge using op*-.
    Op-opubor-f if pe-teho. - I have heard (they told me) that he went into house.


         To be continued... :-)