Arkian texts  

ARKIAN TEXTS

     To let you know how the written Arkian looks out, LI presents on this page comparison between English and Arkian texts of different age, represented by translation of the Gen 11, 1-9, and also detailed analysis of modern Arkian text.


     Comments

    Text: word roots, lexemes
    Text: grammatical determinatives, morphemes
    Text: proper names and numbers
    - : separates individual parts of the word
    * : separates content of multicomponential morpheme



ancient Arkian:
upi ven bi ana la ai upi ven, upi ven bi pai ir bi ana moise (genezis), onid ven bi 11
 
literary Arkian:
upibi an laiupi, upiepai an or moise (genezis), onide 11
 

English:
Bible, The first book of Moses (Genesis), chapter 11

 
 

upi-bi
book-nominative
book
an
attributive
of
lai-upi
propagative plural-book
books
upi-e-pai
book-inanimate-one
the first book
or moise
nominative masculine [mojse]
Moses
onid-e
chapter-inanimate
chapter

  Bible = Book of the books
  Nominative in modern A. is to define names. A. differentiates between names of objects (-bi) and subjects (er, ar, or). A. also does not use capital letters.

 morpheme etymology:
  ven (anc.A.) > -e (lit.A.)
  bi > Ø
  la ai > lai-
  ana > an



ancient Arkian:
1. dout i var bi fo bim tou ni i ix li cid ven le tes or le nei ven fut xim or fut.
 
literary Arkian:
1. doutibim touni cidletes neifutxim.
 

English:
1. All the people spoke the same language in the whole land.

 
 

dout-i-bim
human-animate-all
all the human beings
tou-ni
communicate-narrative
communicated, spoke
cid-le-tes
language-instrumental-same
(using) the same language
nei-fut-xim
land-inessive-whole
in the whole land

    Narrative in Arkian substitutes the non-authentic past tense, it expresses information mediated in some way.

  morpheme etymology:
  i var (anc.A.) > -i (lit.A.)
  fo > Ø
  li > Ø
  le > -le-
  ix > x-



ancient Arkian:
2. sarav pa ni i ix nei steri ven mu sinar fut aroli xeta af li mitra ven bul ge nid pidra lut is.
 
literary Arkian:
2. saravpanixi munesteri er sinar fut arolxetaaf mitrabul ge nidpidra lut.
 
English:
2.They found a lowland in Shinar while they were travelling from east and they settled there.

 
 

sarav-pa-ni-x*-i
find-completive-narrative-they*animate
they have found
mu-ne-steri
accusative-land-low
lowland
er sinar fut
nominative inanimate [sinar] inessive
in Shinar
arol-xeta-af
use-way-transgressive present
(while they were) travelling
mitra-bul
east-ablative
from east
ge
elemental copula
and
nid-pidra
found-community
settle(d)
l-u*t
that place-spacial*moving
there

    The general roots in the synthetic words (appearing sooner in the order) became abbreviated in modern Arkian: aroli > arol, nei > ne, comparing to their appearance as a separete word.
    If there is an elemental copula between the two clauses in the complex sentence, the second predicate contains determinatives neither of person nor of tense.
   Transgressive present is a special type of verb infinitive, used in A. to express paralel action to the main one, expressed in predicate.

  morpheme etymology:
  mu > mu-
  is > Ø



ancient Arkian:
3. tou pa ni ei k ix: "na leti pe ia va zi la xura ven mu ge roka pa ia va zi fo ix mu li panu ven le." tu arolini k ix la xura ven mu la unum ven eti ge li citan ven mu li mesi ven eti.
 
literary Arkian:
3. toupaniexi: "na letipaivazi mulaxura ge rokapa muxe panule." tu arolinixi mulaxura launumeti ge mucitan mesieti.

English:
3. They said one to the other: "Let us make bricks and bake them with fire." So they had bricks instead of stones and clay instead of lime.

 
 

tou-pa-ni-e-x*-i
communicate-completive-narrative-reciprocive-they*animate
they said to each other
leti-pa-i-va-zi
make-completive-reflective-we-exhortative
let us make
mu-la-xura
accusative-plural-brick
bricks
roka-pa
burn-completive
burn
mu-x*e
accusative-they*inanimate
them
panu-le
fire-instrumental
(using) fire
tu
graduating copula
and so
arol-ni-x*-i
use-narrative-they*animate
they used
la-unum-eti
plural-stone-oppositive
instead of stone
mu-citan
accusative-clay
clay
mesi-eti
lime-oppositive
instead of lime

 morpheme etymology:
  ei > -e-
  ia > -i-




ancient Arkian:
4. tou pa ni ei i ix: "trup ia va zi venem ven mu ge mek ven mu ana eke dau morn ven bi atu tapit pa id li sura ven mu mi nirt sa na li dira ven mu ge oneri pe oi nam sa na."
 
literary Arkian:
4. toupaniexi: "trupivazi muvenemgemek ake damorne attapitpa musura mi nirtsana mudira ge oneripaonusana."


English:
4. They say one to the other: "Let us build a town and tower, which peak will touch the sky, thus we will gain pride and we will be not dispersed."

 
 

tru-pa-i-va-zi
build-completive-reflective-we-exhortative
let us build
mu-venem-ge-mek
accusative-town-connective-tower
town and tower
a*ke
attributive*which
(,) which
da-morn-e
part-height-inanimate
peak
at-tapit-pa
prospective-touch-completive
will touch (we intend it)
mu-sura
accusative-sky
sky
mi
causal copula
thus
nirt-sa-na
gain-expectative-we all
we all expect to gain
mu-dira
accusative-recognition
recognition
oneri-pa-o-nu-sa-na
disperse-completive-negative-passive-expectative-we all
we all expect not to be dispersed

  Expectative and prospective in Arkian substitute the future tense, it expresses either something we expect it will happen or something we intend to do, respectively.

  morpheme etymology:
  oi > -o-
  nam > -nu-
  atu > at-



ancient Arkian:
5. lata var bi lena pa ni i id venem ven nul ge mek ven nur ana eke la ima i id ana dout var tru ni i ix.

literary Arkian:
5. or latai lenapani venemgemeknur ake laimau an douti truni.

English:
5. God has a look on the town and the tower, which was built by the son of a man.

 
 

ir lata-i
nominative animate good-animate
God
lena-pa-ni
see-completive-narrative
had a look
venem-ge-mek-nur
town-connective-tower-supralative
on town and tower
la-ima-u
plural-parent-juvenile
descendants
dout-i
human-animate
human being, man

   God - absolute good being. Arkian tradition was almost not touched by Christianity. Arkian also does not have concept of god known in occidental cultures. There is a word kantunnui, which can be translated as god. It means worshipped being, but containing root kan, related to being, existence, and animate gender affix i as a personification marker. It points more on the worshipping, tun, of existence, present in some symbolic personality, than to transcendental living being. That word does not suit to the concept of god as we know it from Christianity, so using relative adjective lata = good without any relativising modifier and using of animate gender affix ko creates denotation for monotheistic concept of God in judeo-christiano-islamic religion system - ir latai.



ancient Arkian:
6. lata var bi tou pa ni i id: "ke lena ca la dout ven mu tou af or mu li cid ven le tes or le oro is en nes i ix leti ven mu fo i ix or mu; olo is umen oi sa i ix li rinar nam ven mu.
 
literary Arkian:
6. ir latai toupani: "ke lenaca muladoutitouaf cidletes oro ennes muletiexi; olo umenosaxi murinarnu.

English:
6. God said: "I see the people speaking the same language and that is, why they started their work; and that is, why they will not end what they have decided to.

 
 

ke
negative evaluation interjective
N / A
lena-ca
see-I
I see
o*r-o
causal*causal-neutral
that is the reason why
en-nes
authentic past-start
started
mu-leti-e-x*-i
accusative-do-inanimate-they*animate
their work
o*l-o
causal*consequent-neutral
for that reason
umen-o-sa-x*-i
stop-negative-expectative-they*animate
they will not stop
mu-rinar-nu
accusative-aim-passive
what (they) decided to

     The authentic past tense in Arkian expresses something that speaker knows from his own experience.

  morpheme etymology:
  ca > -ca
  ent > en-



ancient Arkian:
7. no atu roum pa ca xur is olo is ge pesa pa ca li cid ven mu fo i ix so mi tou oi sa ei i ix fim."
 
literary Arkian:
7. no atroumpaca xur olo ge pesapa mucid soxi mi touosaexifim."

English:
7. So I will descend there and confuse their language so they will be not able to understand each other."

 
 

no
neutral episthemic interjective
N / A
at-roum-pa-ca
prospective-go-completive-I
I will go
x-u*r
bottom-spacial*moving
down
pesa-pa
confuse-completive
confuse
so-x*-i
dative-they*animate
to them
tou-o-sa-e-x*-i-fim
communicate-negative-
expectative-reciprocive-
they*animate-capative
they will be not able to communicate with each other


ancient Arkian:
8. umen ni i ix tru kses venem ven mu ge oneri pa ni nam i ix.
 
literary Arkian:
8. umennixi trus muvenem ge oneripaninuxi.

English:
8. They have stopped to build the town and they were dispersed.

 

tru-s
build-supine
(the) building
oneri-pa-ni-nu-x*-i
disperse-completive-narrative-passive-they*animate
they were dispersed

  Supine is a special type of verb infinitive, used in A. to express final effect of an action expressed in predicate.

  morpheme etymology:
  kses > -s



ancient Arkian:
9. venem ven ma bi caxa nam babel (vene pesa ven bi), ofo is lata var bi pesa pa ni i id li cid ven mu ana la dout var fo bim li nei ven fut ge oneri pa ni i id fo i ix mu eto is.

literary Arkian:
9. venemema caxanu er babel (venpesabi), oro or latai pesapani mucid an ladoutbim neifut ge oneripa muxi eto.

English:
9. The name of that town is Babel (City/Place of Confusion), because God confused the language of all people in the land and dispersed them.

 
 

venem-e*ma
town-inanimate*that
that town
caxa-nu
name-passive
is called
er baabel
nominative inanimate [ba:bel]
Babel
ven-pesa-bi
city/place-confuse-nominative
City/Place of Confusion
e*t-o
modal*modal-neutral
in that way



[BACK TO CONTENTS]