Communication is conducted using meaningful wholes, clauses, which involve intonation line, they are relatively closed in content and are tidy in expressive means - holders of meaning.
     Clause is created of obligatory (subject and predicate), forced components (interrogative and pronominal adverbs) and unforced components, which ones are realised using parts of speech or groups of these part acting as sentential elements. Sentential element can be also another clause (subordinate clause). Special case are ellipses.

[Communication aim], [Parts of speech], [Sentence]

Communication aim

Indicative clause

     This clause simply convey its content, does have traditional rigid structure, usually descending intonation, verb is here in indicative, conditional, obligative, delectative, admittative, capative, potentional, necessive or factitive:

     He went out of house, so that he could go shopping. - Enrojumozdu kastiyen gu enucitamtet.

     The order of objects is fixed - object in accusative is followed with object in dative. If the object in dative stands before object in accusative, it has been emphasized.
     In subordinate clauses, clauses which substitute parts of speech, is the word order as in main clauses.
     Change of the position of the sentential element towards the beginning of the clause or using of demonstrative affixes (-ba, -bak, -ma) serves to differentiate emphasis, which we put on the individual components of communication:

Communication specification with subject expressed
     Demonstrative affixes -ba (this), -bak (that), -ma (yon) specify the communication in the sense of focusing the attention on the person or object.
     Rontyk kridoz kastiyen. >< Rontubak kridoz kastiyen.

Communication graduation
     Movement of the sentential element position to the beginning of the sentence puts the emphasis on it. What is in many languages expressed through intonation, A. communicates changing the sentential element position.
     Rojumhi ul. ><  Hi rojum ul. >< Ul rojumhi. >< Ul hi rojum.

Closed sentential frame
     In all types of clauses may appear so-called closed construction, created of those parts of speech, which contains postpositional case and postverb modified verb with same or similar meaning. Closed construction is created with omission of the postverb and with placing of the part of speech with postpositional case at the end of the construction:
     We are looking forward to meet you again. - Hojudijaca hiyor onayorle. >< Hojudijaca onale hiyor.

Shortened sentential frame
     In the clauses where both, predicate and object, contain the same root, this is ommitted in the object and substituted with a inanimate gender determinative, creating thus so-called shortened construction. Such kind of clauses is obviously translated to English using nominative predicate:
     I am a cat. - Hastca muhast a urek. (lit. I live a life of a cat.) >< Hastca muye a urek.
     I am a blacksmith. - Rujinca murujin a upanu. (lit. I do a work of a blacksmith.) >< Rujinca muye a upanu.

     To express negation or absence A. uses determinative oja, which can be part of verbs, nouns and adjectives (to not see - olenaoja).
     Opposite to Vitgan, A. does not accumulate negatives, it uses only one:
     Nobody is perfect (in V. Nobody isn't perfect). - Bimyk banmaramoja. (Everybody is imperfect).

     To express opposition, opposite direction or side it is used in A. determinative ox and av, respectively, it may be part of adverbs, nouns and adjectives (left - utbid, right - utrid, utavbid).

Interrogative clause

     This clause is used to ask on facts, their parts or we query additional informations, intonation is mostly ascending, this clause contains forced sentential elements - pronominal and interrogative adverbs or interrogative pronouns.
     What is the dog doing? - Rontubak leti mubi mu..
     In some cases (e.g. if the interrogative particle is interrogative pronoun) it is possible to ommit the pronoun, only the case particle remains:
     Do you know him? - Najilhi mudu mubik. >< Najilhi mudu mu.

     Interrogative clause may also have another role in so-called rhetorical questions, on them we do not expect answer, we use them to claim something.

Imperative clause

     This clause expresses command, it is based on verb in compulsive, nuances in intonation may differentiate from sternness to civility.
      Go! - Rojumzihi.

Optative clause

     Such sentence expresses our wish, verb is in desiderative or optative, word order is as in indicative clause, in intonation the stress is put on individual words:
     Let you come! - Rojumajehi.

Clause of exclamation

     These clauses differ from imperative ones that they are only appraising, verb is in exhortative or the clause begins with determinative oks, word order is proportional to the way of appraisement:
Oh, he has grown tall! - Oks du enirfoz.

Incomplete communication (ellipse)

     These are clauses, which lifted from the communication context loose their meaning. They are typical for colloquial language.
     - Bankum rontuba cef. (Which colour is this dog?)
     - Bankindu hil. (It is white.)
     - Kume a rontuba. (Colour of this dog?)
     - Bankin. (White.)


Parts of speech


     The establishing element of a clause is predicate, classifies action in time and mood, it may content grammatical person, through voice expresses relation between actor and acted. Obligatory to predicate is subject, either separate or as a grammatical person.
     Predicate may be expressed using definite form of verb, including connection with supine.
     There is (occurs) a dog in a house. - Rontu rojumam kastiyaz.
     He left, because the house was old (exhibit oldness). - Enrojumesdu firab kastieba enbantunge.


     This part of speech determines originator of an action, holder of attribute or those, on them is acted passive action.
     Subject is usually noun or pronoun in nominative, grammatical person of predicate or subordinary clause substantive.


     Object complement meaning of predicate, either in connection with direct cases: accusative - direct object (lenaca muhi), dative - indirect object, directing or passive change (enlujofca sohi) or in connection with postpositional cases.

Adverbial modifiers

     They adjunct other parts of speech and express circumstances, mode and intensity of the actions and qualities, only rare they are obligatory. Adverbial modifier may be adverb, connectional case (instrumental), postpositional case or subordinate adverbial clause.
     Types adverbial modifications are covered with types of adverbs (of place, time, mode).


     This part of speech adjuncts any part of speech if it is noun. We differentiate between intrinsic, which was transformed into adhesion affixes (rontukin, in old Arkian in the same case with adjuncted part) and extrinsic, expressed through genitive a or u (nomaye a Ark, leruye irike, kastiye u imayu).



     Sentence is a meaningful whole composed of two or more clauses. According to relation between clauses we differentiate complex and compound sentences.

Complex sentence

     This sentence connects two main clauses, they are connected either simply or using co-ordinate conjunctions. Further we know sentences connective, adversative, disjunctive and causal.

Compound sentence

     It contains main clause and subordinary clause, which adjuncts some of the parts of speech in main clause, clauses are connected using subordinate conjunctions.