is conducted using meaningful wholes, clauses, which involve intonation
line, they are relatively closed in content and are tidy in expressive
means - holders of meaning.
Clause is created
of obligatory (subject and predicate), forced components
(interrogative and pronominal adverbs) and unforced components,
which ones are realised using parts of speech or groups of these part acting
as sentential elements. Sentential element can be also another clause
(subordinate clause). Special case are ellipses.
This clause simply
its content, does have traditional rigid structure, usually descending
intonation, verb is here in indicative, conditional, obligative, delectative,
admittative, capative, potentional, necessive or factitive:
SUBJECT + ATTRIBUTES
+ PREDICATE + OBJECTS, ADVERBIAL MODIFIERS.
He went out of
house, so that he could go shopping. - Enrojumozdu kastiyen
The order of objects
is fixed - object in accusative is followed with object in dative. If the
object in dative stands before object in accusative, it has been emphasized.
clauses, clauses which substitute parts of speech, is the word order as
in main clauses.
the position of the sentential element towards the beginning of the
clause or using of demonstrative affixes (-ba, -bak, -ma) serves
to differentiate emphasis, which we put on
the individual components of communication:
Communication specification with
affixes -ba (this), -bak (that), -ma (yon) specify
the communication in the sense of focusing the attention on the person
kastiyen. >< Rontubak kridoz kastiyen.
the sentential element
position to the beginning of the sentence
puts the emphasis on it. What is in many languages expressed through
intonation, A. communicates changing the sentential element position.
>< Hi rojum ul. >< Ul rojumhi. >< Ul hi
Closed sentential frame
In all types
of clauses may appear so-called
closed construction, created of
those parts of speech, which contains postpositional case and postverb
modified verb with same or similar meaning. Closed construction is created
with omission of the postverb and with placing of the part of speech with
postpositional case at the end of the construction:
We are looking
forward to meet you again. - Hojudijaca hiyor onayorle.
>< Hojudijaca onale hiyor.
Shortened sentential frame
In the clauses
where both, predicate and object, contain the same root, this is ommitted
in the object and substituted with a inanimate gender determinative,
creating thus so-called
shortened construction. Such kind of clauses
is obviously translated to English using nominative predicate:
I am a cat.
- Hastca muhast a urek. (lit. I live a life of a cat.)
>< Hastca muye a urek.
I am a blacksmith.
- Rujinca murujin a upanu. (lit. I do a work of a
blacksmith.) >< Rujinca muye a upanu.
To express negation
or absence A. uses determinative oja, which can be
part of verbs, nouns and adjectives (to not see - olenaoja).
Opposite to Vitgan,
A. does not accumulate negatives, it uses only one:
Nobody is perfect
(in V. Nobody isn't perfect). - Bimyk banmaramoja. (Everybody is
To express opposition,
direction or side it is used in A. determinative
and av, respectively, it may be part of adverbs, nouns and
adjectives (left - utbid, right - utrid,
This clause is used
ask on facts, their parts or we query additional informations,
intonation is mostly ascending, this clause contains forced sentential
elements - pronominal and interrogative adverbs or interrogative
What is the dog
doing? - Rontubak leti mubi mu..
In some cases
(e.g. if the interrogative particle is interrogative pronoun) it is possible
to ommit the pronoun, only the case particle remains:
Do you know him?
- Najilhi mudu mubik. >< Najilhi mudu mu.
clause may also have another role in so-called rhetorical questions,
on them we do not expect answer, we use them to claim something.
This clause expresses
command, it is based on verb in compulsive, nuances in intonation may
differentiate from sternness to civility.
Go! - Rojumzihi.
Such sentence expresses
our wish, verb is in desiderative or optative, word order is as in
indicative clause, in intonation the stress is put on individual words:
Let you come!
Clause of exclamation
These clauses differ
from imperative ones that they are only appraising, verb is in exhortative
or the clause begins with determinative oks, word order is
proportional to the way of appraisement:
Oh, he has grown tall! - Oks du enirfoz.
These are clauses,
which lifted from the communication context loose their meaning.
They are typical for colloquial language.
- Bankum rontuba
cef. (Which colour is this dog?)
hil. (It is white.)
- Kume a rontuba.
(Colour of this dog?)
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element of a clause is predicate, classifies action in time and mood, it
may content grammatical person, through voice expresses relation between
actor and acted. Obligatory to predicate is subject, either separate or
as a grammatical person.
be expressed using definite form of verb, including connection with
There is (occurs)
a dog in a house. - Rontu rojumam kastiyaz.
He left, because
the house was old (exhibit oldness). - Enrojumesdu firab kastieba
This part of speech
determines originator of an action, holder of attribute or those, on them
is acted passive action.
Subject is usually
noun or pronoun in nominative, grammatical person of predicate or subordinary
meaning of predicate, either in connection with direct cases: accusative
- direct object (lenaca
dative - indirect object,
directing or passive change (enlujofca sohi) or in connection
with postpositional cases.
They adjunct other
parts of speech and express circumstances, mode and intensity of the actions
and qualities, only rare they are obligatory. Adverbial modifier may be
adverb, connectional case (instrumental), postpositional case or
subordinate adverbial clause.
modifications are covered with types of adverbs (of place, time, mode).
This part of speech
adjuncts any part of speech if it is noun. We differentiate between intrinsic,
which was transformed into adhesion affixes (rontukin, in
old Arkian in the same case with adjuncted part) and extrinsic,
expressed through genitive
a or u (nomaye
a Ark, leruye irike, kastiye u imayu).
[BACK TO SYNTAX]
Sentence is a
meaningful whole composed of two or more clauses. According to relation
between clauses we differentiate
complex and compound sentences.
This sentence connects
two main clauses, they are connected either simply or using co-ordinate
conjunctions. Further we know sentences connective, adversative,
It contains main
clause and subordinary clause, which adjuncts some of the parts
of speech in main clause, clauses are connected using subordinate conjunctions.
[BACK TO SYNTAX]