[Orthography and Pronuntiation]
[Adverbs], [Postpospositions], [Conjunctions], [Interjections]
OA. is composing,
agglutinating language. Words are created of independent roots,
carrying the general meaning (e.g. ront) and of determinatives,
which serves to express grammatical qualities (e.g. ku, var).
Root, modified with determinative becomes base for further derivation,
stem, or creates meaningful ensemble (dog - ront ku var,
canine - ront ku ur).
Nouns of OA. expresses independent objects, names of qualities and actions, understand as objects. Another possible division is on primary and composed, authentic (dog - ront ku var) and derived (to smith - upan o, blacksmith - upan ku var).
Basic division of nouns in OA. according to gender is on animate (var [0 - in the presence of natural gender determinative; k]) and inanimate (ven [e]). Animate gender belongs to living organisms, inanimate to objects and abstracts.
Animate nouns knows according to their biological nature natural gender - feminine ka [a], masculine ku [u], juvenile ko [o]. Natural gender definite mostly refers to animals, with plants is used only in scientific publications. If the we speak generally about any organism or we do not want to express any concrete gender, use the indefinite var [k].
The juvenile determinative ko can be combined in one word with natural gender determinatives ka or ku, the juvenile always the first, followed by the gender (ima ku ko - son).
Noun of OA. differentiates two general categories: countability and uncountability.
Countability: from particularity, independent objects (singular) to abundance of particularities (plural). Plural is expressed using determinative la (dog - ront ku var, dogs - la ront ku var). In the case, when with the counted object is presented the numeral, this numeral serves as the plural determinative (dogs - la ront ku var, three dogs - rahx ront ku var).
Very special case are the objects, which appears naturally in pairs, they are determined with ki [i], determinative similar to the determinatives of natural gender (shoe - kala ven, pair of shoes - kala ki ven, lots of shoes - la kala ven).
Ent fela ia ka ix la ilta ven le. [`enfela'ija'ax `lajiltale] They lifted up the hands. >< Ent lena et ia ku id ilta ki ven mu. [`enlenajetija'ud' `iltajimu] He had a look on his hands.
Uncountability: uncountable are in OA. names of materials, names of qualities, abstracts, nonesuchs and single-member sets. Such nouns do have determinative li before word (sleeping - li terot ven [`terote]). These nouns are also possible to create plural forms using lia - types of materials or qualities, their intensity and repeating (march - li roum et ven, long marches - lati dap sr lia roum et ven [`latidapor `lija'rojumet]).
There are two special groups of nouns collectives (countable sets of particularities) and propagatives (actualities composed of more parts of the same kind - e.g. holidays, uncountable sets of particularities). The first are created using determinative laa (tree -tlum var, trees - la tlum var, greenwood - laa tlum ven), plural can be expressed using the generic numeral. Those second are expressed using determinative lai (the birth - li ima gas ven, birthday - lai ima gas ven), their plural is also expressed by generic numeral.
OA. knows six cases:
nominative - bi, genitive - ke, una, dative - so (eg), accusative - mu, locative - ra (og), instrumental - le (ig) and vocative - zi.
Genitive usage is ruled according to type of attribute: law of Ark - li noma ven bi una ARK [`nomaje `a `ark], Ark without laws - ARK lia noma ven ke Com /`ark `lanomacom/.
Departure is declension of names, for this purpose are used specific determinatives (above in parentheses): John - Dszon, John (instr.) - Dszon ig).
Adjectives name qualities, they are divide on descriptive, name quality - determinative sr (white - kin sr) and relative, besides quality name relations to other qualities or circumstances (to paint - verti o, painted - verti nam or, painting - verti af or).
Determinatives of relative adjectives are dependent on the ending letter of a stem: -i > -i ir, -u > -u ur, -a > -a ar, -e > -e er, ended with consonant > or.
Adjectives are declined in the same way as nouns.
Very often appears special way of quality naming or description of further relations (univerbisation) as a part of noun:
Arkian grammar - li noma cid ark ven bi.
Adjectives does not create plural forms:
white dog - ront ku var bi kin or bi, white dogs - la ront ku var bi kin or bi.
Adjective never stands alone:
Ban kum ix fo hiba la ront k var bi fo cef. - Which colour are these dogs?
Ban kin ix fo hil. - They are white.
Some adjectives can express negation:
comprehensible - fim et nam or [`fimetonor], incomprehensible - fim et oja nam ar [`fimetojanor].
Adjectives may, if it is needed, to express natural gender:
white (he) - kin ku ur [`kinur], white (she) - kin ka ar [`kinar]
positive: -xr, comparative: -xrg, superlative: -xrgi (umel or > umel org > umel orgi)
Pronouns name independent objects and qualities substitutionary. They express phenomena in relations to their role in communication, personal (I - fo ca), express relations of these roles, possessive (my - fo ca ar), complement informations about the matter of communication along with its different nuances (negation, identification, totalisation, quantification and self-reflexion), interrogative (who - fo bi k), demostrative (that - fo hib) and infinite (somebody - fo bik k). All of them a determined with fo.
22.3.1 Personal pronouns
Personal pronouns determines roles in communication, they are closely connected with conjugation: speaker (I) - fo ca, listener (thou) - fo hi and mentioned person (he, she, it) - fo + gender determinative + id.
Expansion of the basic persons evolve their plural forms: speaker and other persons (we) - fo va, speaker and his/her group (we all) - fo na, listener and other persons (you) - fo me, mentioned persons (they) - fo + gender determinative + ix.
If we want to express position of speakers and also subjects mentioned in speech, the personal pronouns are derived to allow such expression:
intimate: pronoun is expanded with affix -o (fo cao, fo hio, fo ido, fo vao, fo meo, fo ixo), it is used between friends.
neutral: the original form is kept, speaker expresses impartiality.
deferential: expresses attitude of dependence between speakers. Every form may also be used to show respect or disrespect without any given relation between speaker and listener. Suboridination (or disrespect) is mirrored in affix -u, seniority (or respect) with -em.
Natural gender determinative allows to express the gender of the first and second persons singular and plural if it is obliged:
I - fo ca, fo ku ca [`u'ca], fo ka ca [`a'ca].
In the case of third person singular and plural it came to the lasting fusion of the natural gender determinative with the pronoun: it (inanimate) - fo id [`d], he (masculine) - fo ku id [`ud'], she (feminine) - fo ka id [`ad'], he/she (juvenile) - fo ko id [`od'], it (indifferent) - fo k id [`od'], both - fo ki id [`id'], they (inanimate) - fo ix, they (masculine) - fo ku ix, they (feminine) - fo ka ix, they (juvenile - fo ko ix,they (indifferent) - fo k ix.
22.3.2 Possessive pronouns
These pronouns not only possess, but also express communication role of subject. They are created from personal pronouns using determinative of adjectives and answer the whose (fo bi ir) question: your - fo hi ir, their - fo ix ar. Declined are like adjectives.
Special sort of possessive pronoun is reflexive possessive pronoun. Its form originate from medium voice of verbs (??), self - fo ia ir.
22.3.3 Interrogative pronouns
Interrogative pronouns ask completion of informations, they ask the objects, qualities and those, who possess: who - fo bi k [bik], what - fo bi [bi], which, whetter - fo ukl, what kind of - fo cef, whose - fo bi ir.
The connection of interrogative pronoun with cases particle una is used as a relative pronoun, which starts the subordinary sentences: the one, who - una fo bi k, hereupon, whence - una fo bi etc.
Another type of pronouns, connected with interrogative ones are indefinite pronouns: somebody - fo bik k, nobody - fo bil k, anybody - fo biud k, someone - fo bit k, many of persons - fo biun k, everybody - fo biut k, some few - fo bie k, various persons - fo bia k, God knows who - fo bial k, all - fo bim k, something - fo bik, nothing - fo bil, anything - fo biud, none - fo bim, some - fo uklk, any - fo uklud.
22.3.4 Demostrative pronouns
Demostrative pronouns serves to orientate to the subject of communication: (which one:) that - fo hib (k), this - fo hibak (k), yon - fo pam, (which sort of:) such - fo hil, self - fo ia.
22.3.5 Identificative pronouns
They expresses if mentioned subjects are indetific or different: the same - fo tes, another - fo cer.
Numerals express quantity, either countable (using number - definite numerals) or uncountable (inexpressible using number - indefinite numerals). Further are numerals divided into cardinal, ordinal, multiple and generic.
22.4.1 Cardinal numerals
These numerals mean only quantity, oneself they name numbers. They answer the om (how much?) question:
O- pitt, 1- paii, 2- douu, 3- rahx, 4- foll, 5- dinn, 6- raii, 7- tidd, 8- inii, 9- intt, 10- lertt, 100- dridd, 1000- berbb, million- ralibb, billion- ralinn, trillionduhebb, quadrillion- duhenn.
Composita are made following this model with determinative it:
21- dou it lertt paii (before it omits the doubled ending letter)
1538- berbb din it dridd rax it lertt inii
22.4.2 Ordinal numerals
Ordinal numerals express position in sequence. They are answer to om or (which one in the sequence?) and are created using determinative of adjectives: the first - pai ir, 45th - fol it lert or rax or. Numerals are declined like nouns.
Connection of ordinal numeral with case particle una serves as a generic numeral, expressing plural of collectives and propagatives (greenwood - laa tlum ven, two greenwoods - laa tlum ven una dou ur).
22.4.3 Multiple numerals
These numerals are used to record repetition or multiplication of noun.
Repetition (how man times? om ono or): single - pai on or, double - dou on or, triple - rax on or.
Multiplication (how many times? om on): once - pai on, twice - dou on...
Addition (plus how much? on): plus one - on pai, plus two - on dou...
Fraction (which part? om on pa): 1/2 - pai on dou pa, 3/5 - rax on din pa, 45/143 - fol it lert din on drid fol it lert rax pa.
22.4.4 Indefinite numerals
Indefinite numerals express quantity we cannot or do not want to count, i.e. assign with number: thus much - om o, several - omk o, lots of, plenty - om a, few, little - om e.
Also numerals (ordinal, multiple and indefinite) can express natural gender:
the fourth - ku fol or [`ufolor], ka fol or [`afolor].
Verbs denote states and their changes or actions and their changes. The verb can be from the grammatical point of view divided into authentic (to entertain - klei o), auxiliary (to be - kan o) and modal. Other differences between verbs are in forms definite, the active verb, and infinitive, complementing verb or dictionary form of verb.
Grammatical person serves for orientation about participants of communication and coincide with personal pronouns. Here is the conjugation model:
klei o - to entertain (dictionary form)
the first person singular - klei ca - I entertain
the second person singular - klei hi - you entertain
the third person singular - klei ku id - he entertains
the first person plural - klei va - we entertain
the second person plural - klei me - you entertain
the third person plural - klei ku ix - they entertain,
also the position of those, who communicate is expressed using appropriate form of personal pronoun.
Voice determines relation between the acting one and the action. A. differentiates active voice (direct relation, subject is source of action), passive (subject is target of the action) and medium (subject acts with concerning himself).
active: Mother prepares the soup. - Ima ka var bi roin uet ka id li ripin ven mu. [`imaja `rojinujet `ripinmu]
medium: Mother prepares herself the soup. - Ima ka var bi roin uet ia ka id li ripin ven mu. [`imaja `rojinujetija `ripinmu]
passive: The soup is prepared. - Li ripin ven bi roin uet nam. [`ripin `rojinujeton]
Aspect differetiates the verbs by their relation to complement of the action on perfective (action started and ended) and imperfective (action still going on).
to flower (through the time) - umani o
to flower (once) - umani uol de o
to flower (once every year) - umani uol o
Tenses express objective time, Old A. knows three tenses: present (also dateless, historical), past and future. They directly bear upon moment of talk:
I entertain - klei ia ca [`kleji'ijaca] (moment of talk)
I entertained - ent klei ia ca [`enkleji'ijaca] (before it)
I will entertain - atu klei ia ca [`atkleji'ijaca] (after it)
Special determinative ed (iterativum) differentiates inactual and actual action.
He have went everyday in school. (he did and do) - Fata ku id ir leru i kasti ermit ven so Um. >< He went everyday in school. (he did, but do not) - Ent fata ed ku id ir leru i kasti ermit ven so Um.
These tenses has evolved from original tense system, containing precise mechanisms for expression of time context.
simple: I prepared it (everyday). - Ent roin uet az ca. [`enrojinujetozca] Determinative az [z] creates participle present, ep [p] past.
simple perfect: Ent roin uet ep ca. [`enrojinujetopca]
continuous: I was preparing it.- Ent kan roin uet az ca. [`enkan `rojinujeto'zca]
continuous perfect: Ent kan roin ep ca. [`enkan `rojinujetopca]
simple: I prepare it. - Roin uet az ca.
simple perfect: Roin uet ep ca.
continuous: I am preparing. - Kan roin uet az ca.
continuous perfect: Kan roin uet ep ca.
simple: I shall prepare it. - Atu roin uet az ca.
simple perfect: Atu roin uet ep ca.
continuous: I will be preparing it. - Atu kan roin uet az ca.
continuous perfect: Atu kan roin uet ep ca.
Generally, OA. contains simple tenses for regular repeating actions and continuous for actual actions. Simple tenses were substituted with imperfect aspect.
Perfect tenses allow to clearly indicate sequence of tenses: past perfect (action begins in past, before other action in the past, which was ended in the past) > past > present perfect (action from past lasting till present) > present > future perfect (action begins in presence, lasts till future and will be ended before other action in future) > future.
The verb in sentence may appear along with active one also in so called infinitive, expanding meaning of the predicative or subjective connection.
Transgressive: this infinitive enables expression of parallel action:
present (action in the same time as of the predicate): The dog going through the house barks. - Ront ku var bi nerm ront ku id roum af kasti ven le. >< Ront ku var bi una ukl rojum ku id kasti ven le, nerm ront ku id.
past (action premature to the one of predicate): He started to read the book after he had sat down. - Ent kan pem ku id rami kses upi ven mu terf uf. >< Ent kan pem ku id rami kses upi ven mu im a i ent terf ku id?
Supine: another infinitive form, serving to express result or aim of an action:
I am going to sleep. - Roum ca rami kses. [`rojumca `ramis]
Gerund: expresses relation to subject:
the wish to go (the wish of going) - Cert ropol ven roum kses [`certropole `rojums]
Gerundive: expresses relation to subject with general validity:
books, which should be read - la upi ven dam nam kses [`lajupi `damons]
Generally the negative serves to negation of described, u it is created using determinative oa (to entertain - klei o >< to do not entertain - klei oa o).
Mood determines relation of an action to reality, assesses action.
220.127.116.11 Moods expressing will
Compulsive (command, zi + hi, me): Get out! - Roum pem zi hi.
Exhortative (appeal, zi + ca, va): Let us out of here! - Roum pem zi va up irh is.
Communicative (with verbs: gei o - to greet, liti o - to thank, pesa o - to beg, ratit o - to please, verb + zi + personal pronoun): Gei zi hi - Hello!
Desiderative (wish, ae): If they get out! - Roum pem de ae ka ix.
Optative (request, possible action, fut): Get out of here, please. - Roum fut va up irh is.
Obligative (obligation, ved): I must go. - Roum ved ca.
Delectative (delight, imi): I like to read. - Dam imi ca?
Admittativ (admission, tet): I permit you to go. - Klei tet ia hi.
Necessive (need, rag): I need new shoes. - Ucit rag ca sin or mu kala ki ven mu.
18.104.22.168 Moods not expressing will
Indicative (real action past or present, aim in future): I go to the house. - Roum ca kasti ven so Um.
Conditional (action conditionally possible, kon): She would buy her the dog if she has a money. - Ucit kon ka id ront ku var mu ce veb ka id li rua ven mu.
Capative (capability, fim): They am able to write. - Rami fim ka ix.
Potentional (possibility, ari): You can go.
Factitive (action done due to initiative, ret): I ordered to make shoes for me. - Ent evi ret ia ca kala ki ven mu.
OA. adopted (through relexification) using of postverbs, usually they are former postpositional cases particles, which enable to express fine nuances.
Adverbs serve to express circumstances in talk. These are of four categories - local, temporal, modal and causal. Pronominal (where - ut is) and interrogative (there? - hez ut is) adverbs are used to identify character of these circumstances, to express these characters we use demonstrative (tam - ut hez is) adverbs. Other possible division is on authentic and derived (modal, state - to want - fut o, greedily - ec fut i) adverbs.
local adverbs: answers on questions where? (determinative ut), whereto? (ul), which way? (un) and where from? (up).
temporal adverbs: questions when? (im), since when? (ic), till what time? (il), how long? (ik), how often? (ir).
modal adverbs: question how? (ec)
causal adverbs: questions why? (fi), for what? (if) because - fi rab is (because of) >< if rab is (for that reason).
Derived adverbs, mostly of adjectives and verbs, se indicates negation:
comprehensibly - ec fim et nam i [`ecfimeton], incomprehensibly - ec fim et oa nam i [`ecfimetojan].
positive: i, is, comparative: ig, igs, superlative: igr, igrs (ec umel i [`ecumel] > ec umel ig ['ecumel'g] > ec umel igr [`ecumel'gr]).
Conjunctions in OA. expresses mutual relations within the connection of clauses and their parts. Formally they are either single (tu) or double (tu...tu). Described relation are further divided to co-ordinate (connect main clauses) and subordinate (begins subordinate clauses).
These conjunctions express several different extends of meaning: copulative elemental (ge) and graduating (tu, tu...tu), adversative (an), disjunctive (sa, sa...sa) and explanatory (mo).
Subordinate conjunctions express semantical dependency of the subordinate clause on the main: consecutive (ha), causal (mu), conditional (ce), admissional (gi), modal comparating (cu), differentiating (il), of circumstance (ho), of extent (ne, ne...ne) and of respect (ru).
Spacial, casual and causal conjunctions are expressed using adverbs, subordinate substantive clauses are often begun using relative pronouns:
fo ukl - who: Ront ku var ??? ukl ent lena ku id? - [`rontu `ukl `enlena] - The dog, which saw.
Only clauses incorporated into other clause are, at the end, separated using comma:
The dog, which ran, was black. - Ront ku var ??a ukl ent krid ku id? ent banmek ku id?
Postpositions in OA. specify the syntactical and non-syntactical properties of noun and alternate to adverbs. They mostly express nature of the relation:
I go into the store. - Roum ca kasti ucit ven so Um.
Here are the connections of postpositions with cases:
gen. - Noi, Com, Iti, Uep, Ruv, Deks, Ium, Ipem
dat. - Um, Gez, Uel, Fel, Dal, Gas, Uat, Hez, Pem, Fed, Oar, Oax, Faz, Uet, Oma, Uks, Uil, Oal
accu. - Piks, Et, Ran
loc. - Fet, Oal, Gas, Uat, Fed, Oax, Faz, Uez, Uam, Oal, Uil
Postposition are in the Latin transcription always written with initial capital letter.
Interjections are important part of the communication construction with their emotional and social functions. They express natural reaction or they arouse it.
Arbitrary cluster of sounds may be used in text to express interjection (onomatopoeic interjections: hiss - ssi oks) or noun (in vocative), verbs in exhortative or adverbs (interjections of contact and of challenge), distinguished with determinative oks in the text. Determinative itself can be used to emphasize word in the clause (along with the word order change - see 4.1.2) or in exclamation clauses without the word order change.
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