Verbs (Lailakaaf)

     Verbs denote states and their changes or actions and their changes. The verb can be from the grammatical point of view divided into definite, the active verb, and infinitive, complementing verb or dictionary form of verb.


     Grammatical person serves for orientation about participants of communication and coincide with personal pronouns. Here is the conjugation model:

           okleji - to entertain (dictionary form)

            1st person singular - klejica - I entertain
            2nd person singular - klejihi - you entertain
            3rd person singular - klejidu - he entertains

            1st person plural - klejiva - we entertain
            2nd person plural - klejime - you entertain
            3rd person plural - klejixu - they entertain,
the grammatical person determinative is used only if there is no clearly expressed subject.
     Also the position of those, who communicate, is expressed using appropriate form of personal pronoun.


     Voice determines relation between the acting one and the action. A. differentiates active voice (direct relation, subject is source of action), passive (subject is target of the action), reflective (subject acts with concerning itself) and reciprocal (subjects act mutually).
     active: Mother prepares the soup. - Imaya rojinef muripin.
     passive: The soup is prepared. - Ripine rojinefyn.
     Passive is also used for expression of negative exhort, e.g. in signs: Do not smoke - Ulepojan.
     reflective: Mother prepares herself the soup. - Imaya rojinefija muripin.
     reciprocal: They spoke to each other. - Entojuejoxa.


     Aspect differetiates the verbs by their relation to complement of the action on unterminated verbs (continuative, action is still going on) and  unrepeteable verbs (momentative, the action has no possible continuation).
     Some of those continuative verbs may create a so-called completive verb, showing that the action was finished. It is done using postverbs:
     to write - ramiyo, to write a text all over- ramiyimo.
     But postverbs generally, except of postverb en, also slightly moves the meaning of the verb, so there appear secondary continuative verbs to describe a running action, derived from completive using deteminative pe:
     to write - ramiyo, to rewrite - ramiyico, to rewrite (continuative) - ramiyicpeyo.
     He was rewriting the second chapter. - Enramiyicpedu muyonidedoju.
     In the clause expressing the lasting of an action, contains ik-class adverb, only completive is used:
     He rewrote it in two hours. - Ramiyicnidu mude ikoldoju.

     Quite close to the aspect is an expression of repetition. A. uses completive or momentative verbs with ir-class adverb (of repeating) to express periodical repetition:
     Rose comes out into bloom once a year. - Irak umaniyoz iriripaji.
     If the period of repetition is given by tradition or habits, the adverb is ommitted and the determinative ir is added to the predicate:
     I visit the school every day. - Rojumca kasermiter irleru.
     I visit the school. - Rojumcayir kasermiter.
     To assign a non-regular repetition, A. uses determinative hu, which is mutually exclusive with the ir-class adverb:
     I visit the school. - Rojumcayir kasermiter.
     He visits (sometimes) wine cellar. - Rojumhudu kasritmicer.
     Using the hu particle with the ir-class adverb distinguishes between actual or inactual past action:
     He has gone everyday in school. (he did and does) - Enrojumdu kasermiter irleru.
     He went everyday in school. (he did, but does not) - Enrojumhudu kasermiter irleru.
     Special case of aspect is uzual, determinative ed, expressing time-to-time actions:
     While writing he is smoking . - Ulepdu ramiyaf.
     While writing he smokes. - Ulepeddu ramiyaf.


     Tenses express objective time, they bear upon moment of talk.

     Present tense shows on an action running in the moment of speech, but it might imply past and future. A. uses non-determined basic tense, primitive, of continuative verb:
     I am reading this new book. - Damca muyupiyebasin.
     Other version of present tense, progressive, points directly to the moment of speech using adverb now - imo:
     I am leaving (now). - Rojumesca imo.
     Combination of primitive with adverb all the time - imi, creates atemporal, showing dateless/gnomic present tense:
     Earth spins around the Sun. - Rajoraxe hep Orgtenov imi.

     Past tense points on an action running before the moments of the speech. A. has simple aorist for the past tense with determinative preffix en:
     He read an interesting book. - Endamdu muyupiyenaki.
     Narrative  (suffix ni) serves to differenciate the authentic (speaker was present) action and non-authentic (speaker transmits heard) one:
     He (they said) read an interesating book. - Damnidu muyupiyenaki.

     Future tense represents action, which is going to appear. It is divided into two subtypes. The first is prospective, at, expressing an aim:
     I am going to read some book. - Atdamca muyupiyecefyk.
     The second one is expectative, sa, pointing on an action we expect:
     Tomorrow will rise the sun. - Tune rojumozsa imaleru.

     In the case, when the tense is already expressed using proper temporal adverb, the determinative of aorist or prospective is to be ommitted:
     He will go to school. - Atrojumdu kasermiter.
     Tomorrow he will go to school. - Rojumdu kasermiter imaleru.

     Using of compulsive, exhortative and communicative moods excludes usage of grammatical tense anyway.


     The verb in sentence may appear along with active one also in so called infinitive, expanding meaning of the predicative or subjective connection.

     present (action in the same time as of the predicate): The dog going through the house barks. - Rontu nerront rojumaf kastile. >< Rontu a ukl rojum kastile, nerront.

     past (action premature to the one of predicate): He has started to read the book after he had sat down. - Enramiyucdu muyupi terfuf. >< Enramiyucdu muyupi  imaenterf.

     Another infinitive form, serving to express result or aim of an action:
          I am going to write. - Rojumca ramis.

     It expresses relation to subject:
          the wish to go (the wish of going) - cerropole rojums

     It expresses relation to subject with general validity:
          books, which should be read - layupi damyns,
          or for positive exhort: Read! - Damyns.


     Generally the negative serves to negation of described, u it is created using determinative oja (to entertain - okleji >< to do not entertain - oklejioja).


     Mood determines relation of an action to reality, assesses action.

Moods expressing will
Compulsive (command, zi + hi, me): Get out! - Rojumeszihi.
Exhortative (appeal, zi + ca, va): Let us out of here! - Rojumesziva upirh.
Communicative (with verbs: ogeji - to greet, litiyo - to thank, pesayo - to beg, ratito - to please, verb + zi + personal pronoun): Hello! - Gejizihi.
Desiderative (wish, aje): If they get out! - Atrojumesajeca muxa.
Obligative (obligation, ved): I must go. - Rojumvedca.
Delectative (delight, imi): I like to read. - Damimica.
Admittative (admission, tet): I permit you to go. - Rojumtetca sohi.
Necessive (need, rag): I need new shoes. - Ucitragca mukalayisin.

Moods not expressing will
Indicative (real action past or present, aim in future): I go to the house. - Rojumca kastiyeg.
Conditional (action conditionally possible, kon): She would buy her the dog if she has a money. - Ucitkonda murontu ce veb muruja.
Capative (capability, fim): They are able to write. - Ramifimxa.
Potentional (possibility, ari): You can go. - Rojumarihi.
Factitive (action done due to initiative, ret): I ordered to make shoes for me. - Eneviretijaca mukalayi.

Verbal affixes - postverbs

     A. adopted (through relexification) using of postverbs, usually they are former postpositional cases particles, which enable to express fine nuances:
          to ascribe - ramiyefo, to describe - ramiyimo.
     In the case, where adverbs or the case of object in the clause are same in the meaning as the affix, these are omitted:
     He went out of the house. - Enrojum(oz)du kastiyen. >< He left the house. - Enrojumesdu kastiyen.