Verbs denote states and their changes or actions and their changes. The verb can be from the grammatical point of view divided into definite, the active verb, and infinitive, complementing verb or dictionary form of verb.
okleji - to entertain (dictionary form)
1st person singular - klejica - I entertain
2nd person singular - klejihi - you entertain
3rd person singular - klejidu - he entertains
1st person plural - klejiva - we entertain
2nd person plural - klejime - you entertain
3rd person plural - klejixu - they entertain,
the grammatical person determinative is used only if there is no clearly expressed subject.
Also the position of those, who communicate, is expressed using appropriate form of personal pronoun.
Quite close to the aspect is an expression of repetition. A. uses completive or momentative verbs with ir-class adverb (of repeating) to express periodical repetition:
Rose comes out into bloom once a year. - Irak umaniyoz iriripaji.
If the period of repetition is given by tradition or habits, the adverb is ommitted and the determinative ir is added to the predicate:
I visit the school every day. - Rojumca kasermiter irleru.
I visit the school. - Rojumcayir kasermiter.
To assign a non-regular repetition, A. uses determinative hu, which is mutually exclusive with the ir-class adverb:
I visit the school. - Rojumcayir kasermiter.
He visits (sometimes) wine cellar. - Rojumhudu kasritmicer.
Using the hu particle with the ir-class adverb distinguishes between actual or inactual past action:
He has gone everyday in school. (he did and does) - Enrojumdu kasermiter irleru.
He went everyday in school. (he did, but does not) - Enrojumhudu kasermiter irleru.
Special case of aspect is uzual, determinative ed, expressing time-to-time actions:
While writing he is smoking . - Ulepdu ramiyaf.
While writing he smokes. - Ulepeddu ramiyaf.
Present tense shows on an action running in the moment of speech, but it might imply past and future. A. uses non-determined basic tense, primitive, of continuative verb:
I am reading this new book. - Damca muyupiyebasin.
Other version of present tense, progressive, points directly to the moment of speech using adverb now - imo:
I am leaving (now). - Rojumesca imo.
Combination of primitive with adverb all the time - imi, creates atemporal, showing dateless/gnomic present tense:
Earth spins around the Sun. - Rajoraxe hep Orgtenov imi.
Past tense points on an action running before the moments of the speech. A. has simple aorist for the past tense with determinative preffix en:
He read an interesting book. - Endamdu muyupiyenaki.
Narrative (suffix ni) serves to differenciate the authentic (speaker was present) action and non-authentic (speaker transmits heard) one:
He (they said) read an interesating book. - Damnidu muyupiyenaki.
Future tense represents action, which is going to appear. It is divided into two subtypes. The first is prospective, at, expressing an aim:
I am going to read some book. - Atdamca muyupiyecefyk.
The second one is expectative, sa, pointing on an action we expect:
Tomorrow will rise the sun. - Tune rojumozsa imaleru.
In the case, when
the tense is already expressed using proper temporal adverb, the determinative
of aorist or prospective is to be ommitted:
He will go to school. - Atrojumdu kasermiter.
Tomorrow he will go to school. - Rojumdu kasermiter imaleru.
Using of compulsive, exhortative and communicative moods excludes usage of grammatical tense anyway.
present (action in the same time as of the predicate): The dog going through the house barks. - Rontu nerront rojumaf kastile. >< Rontu a ukl rojum kastile, nerront.
past (action premature to the one of predicate): He has started to read the book after he had sat down. - Enramiyucdu muyupi terfuf. >< Enramiyucdu muyupi imaenterf.
Another infinitive form, serving to express result or aim of an action:
I am going to write. - Rojumca ramis.
It expresses relation to subject:
the wish to go (the wish of going) - cerropole rojums
It expresses relation to subject with general validity:
books, which should be read - layupi damyns,
or for positive exhort: Read! - Damyns.
Moods expressing will
Compulsive (command, zi + hi, me): Get out! - Rojumeszihi.
Exhortative (appeal, zi + ca, va): Let us out of here! - Rojumesziva upirh.
Communicative (with verbs: ogeji - to greet, litiyo - to thank, pesayo - to beg, ratito - to please, verb + zi + personal pronoun): Hello! - Gejizihi.
Desiderative (wish, aje): If they get out! - Atrojumesajeca muxa.
Obligative (obligation, ved): I must go. - Rojumvedca.
Delectative (delight, imi): I like to read. - Damimica.
Admittative (admission, tet): I permit you to go. - Rojumtetca sohi.
Necessive (need, rag): I need new shoes. - Ucitragca mukalayisin.
Moods not expressing will
Indicative (real action past or present, aim in future): I go to the house. - Rojumca kastiyeg.
Conditional (action conditionally possible, kon): She would buy her the dog if she has a money. - Ucitkonda murontu ce veb muruja.
Capative (capability, fim): They are able to write. - Ramifimxa.
Potentional (possibility, ari): You can go. - Rojumarihi.
Factitive (action done due to initiative, ret): I ordered to make shoes for me. - Eneviretijaca mukalayi.
Verbal affixes - postverbs
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