Pronouns (Laicaxaex)

     Pronouns name independent objects and qualities substitutionary. They express phenomena in relations to their role in communication, personal (I - ca), interrogative (who - bik), and indefinite (somebody - bikyk), complementing informations about the matter of communication along with its different nuances (negation, identification, totalisation, quantification and self-reflexion).
     Personal pronouns are declined in the same way as adjectives: (to) me - caso.

Personal pronouns

     Personal pronouns determines roles in communication, they are closely connected with conjugation: speaker (I) - ca, listener (thou) - hi and mentioned person (he, she, it) - d + gender affix.
     Expansion of the basic persons evolve their plural forms: speaker and other persons (we) - va, speaker and his/her group (we all) - na, listener and other persons (you) - me, mentioned persons (they) - x + gender affix. Using connective determinative ge it is possible to create mixed pronouns (we both, me and thou - cagehi).

Relation
     If we want to express position of speakers and also subjects mentioned in speech, the personal pronouns are derived to allow such expression:
     intimate: pronoun is expanded with affix -jo (cajo, hijo, dujo, vajo, mejo, xajo), it is used between friends.
     neutral: the original form is kept, speaker expresses impartiality.
     deferential: expresses attitude of dependence between speakers. Every form may also be used to show respect or disrespect without any given relation between speaker and listener. Suboridination (or disrespect) is mirrored in affix -ju, seniority (or respect) with -jem.

Gender
     Natural gender determinative allows to express the gender of the first and second persons singular and plural if it is obliged: I - ca, cayu [`caju] (ATENTION! caju >< cayu), caya [`caja].
     In the case of third person singular and plural it came to the lasting fusion of the natural gender determinative with the pronoun: it (inanimate) - de, he (masculine) - du, she (feminine) - da, he/she (juvenile) - do, it (indifferent) - dyk, both - di, they (inanimate) - xe, they (masculine) - xu, they (feminine) - xa, they (juvenile) - xo, they (indifferent) - xyk.

Interrogative pronouns

     Interrogative pronouns ask for completion of informations, they ask for the objects, qualities and those, who possess them. These are the types: who - bik, what - bi, which, whetter - ukl, what kind of - cef (hil).
     Interrogative pronoun are so called forced sentenial elements in questions and thus they have its counterpart in the answer clause (e.g. cef > hil) creating the frame of question and answer.
     The connection of interrogative pronoun with attributive determinative a is used as a relative pronoun, which starts the subordinary clauses: the one, who - a bik, hereupon, whence - a bi etc.
     Another type of pronouns, connected with interrogative ones, are indefinite pronouns: somebody - bijakyk, nobody - bilyk, anybody - bijudyk, someone - bityk, many of persons - bijunyk, everybody - bijutyk, some few - bijeyk, various persons - bijak, gods know who - bijalyk, all - bimyk, something - bijak, nothing - bil, anything - bijud, some - uklyk, any - uklud.

[BACK to MORPHOLOGY]