Nouns (laicaxa)

     Nouns of A. express independent objects, names of qualities and actions, understood as objects (a beauty - umele, a run - kride). Another possible division is on primary and/or composed (building - kese + educate - miteci > school - kesmitee), authentic (dog - rontko) and/or derived (to smith - upanci, a /black/smith - upano).


     Basic division of nouns in A. according to gender is on inanimate e and animate. Animate gender belongs to living organisms, inanimate to objects and abstracts.
     Animate nouns know, according to their biological nature, natural gender definite - feminine a, masculine o, juvenile u and indefinite ko. More details about natural gender creation see this.

noun gender
upi-e [‘?upié]
dog (female)
ront-a [‘rontá]
dog (male)
ront-o [‘rontó]
ront-u [‘rontú]
dog (generally)
ront-ko [‘rontkó]

       The juvenile particle can be further derived to express the gender of the offspring, uo - male, ua - female (puppy /he/ - rontuo)

Demonstrative affix
      Parallel to demonstrative pronouns of other languages are demonstrative affixes, connected to the gender particle.
      Object, which is seen and is nearby the speakers, is marked with affix -ba (rontuba - this dog), object, which is also seen, but is placed in a distance from speakers, is marked with affix -bak (rontubak - that dog). Object, which is unseen, but speakers know it, is marked with affix -ma (rontuma - yon dog).

Relation affix
      Relation affixes expresses relation of speaker of mentioned person to the subject in noun. Relation affixes are the same as with personal pronouns (see here): father - imao, Father (God-Father) - imaoiem 


Singular and plural
       Noun of A. differentiates singular and plural. Grammatical number of A. moves from particularity (independent objects, names of materials, names of qualities, abstracts, nonesuchs and single-member sets - singular) to abundance of particularities, their intensity or repeating (plural).
       Plural is expressed using determinative la. If it is in the word presented determinative la, the determinatives of inanimate noun e and indifferent animate noun k disappear, but it remains determinatives of animate gender (dog - ronto, dogs - laronto, book - upie, books - laupi, tree - tlumko, trees - latlum).
       In the case, when with the counted object is presented the numeral, is the numeral equal to the plural determinative (dogs - laronto, three dogs - raxronto).
      To distinguish discrete and non-discrete sets of counted objects A. uses enumerative quantifier it (five trees - dintlum, group of five trees - dinittlum).

     Special case are the objects, which appears naturally in pairs, they are determined with i, determinative similar to the determinatives of natural gender (shoe - kalae, the pair of shoes - kalai, shoes (heap) - lakala).

EXAMPLE:  enfelaexa lailtale. They lifted up the hands. >< enrasapado muiltai. He had a look on his hands.

Collectives and propagatives
    There are two special groups of nouns: collectives (countable sets of particularities) and propagatives (actualities composed of more parts of the same kind - e.g. holidays, uncountable sets of particularities). The first are created using determinative laa (a tree - tlumko, trees - latlum, greenwood - laatlum), plural can be expressed using the generic numeral. Those second are expressed using determinative lai (a name - caxae, nouns - laicaxa ), their plural is also expressed by generic numeral.


     Literary A. combines two types of declension, postpositional and connectional cases.
     Connectional cases are further divided to direct (8): subjective - 0 (case of subject), nominative - bi, /a-, o-, e-/r (naming), partitive - ke (ak), attributive - an (-/o/r), possessive - un, dative - so (indirect object, directional) (ek), accusative - mu (direct object) (uk), instrumental - le (ik), and indirect (1): vocative (address) - zi.
       Case particles bi, ke, le and zi are affixes, standing after noun or between noun and adhesion affix. Particles an and un do stay alone before noun and particles mu and so are noun prefixes. The determinatives of inanimate gender and indifferent animate gender disappear in the presence of case particle (law - nomaye, law /instr./ - nomale, new law - nomaesin, new law /instr./ - nomalesin, tree - tlumko, of tree /partitive/ - tlumke, high tree - tlumkomorn, of high tree /partitive/ - tlumkemorn).
     The case determinatives mu and so are used in the different way, they precede the noun (or pronoun) pointing on its connection to the verb. If the noun has adhesion affix the determinatives of inanimate gender and indifferent animate gender remains:
      damca muupi. - I am reading a book.
      damca muupiesin. - I am reading a new book.
     Departure is declension of names (particles are in parenthesis), these particles are different and are written separately (John - Dszon, John /instr./ - Dszon ig).
     Postpositional cases (48) are these:
     spacial: illative er (into), allativ eg (to), circalative ov (around), interessive at (between), interlative et (between), extraessive as (out of), supraessive am (on), supralative em (on), peressive ac (above), perlative ec (above), ablative es (from), subessive ak (under), sublative ek (under), subsecutive ol (along), contraessive av (athwart), contralative ev (athwart), preessive al (in front), prelative el (before), translative ep (over), exlative ef (off), transitive eh (through), transversative ed (across), transessive ad (across), adhesive ap (by, near), inessive az (in), juxtaessive ab (beside), juxtalativ eb (beside), ellative en (out, from), postessive ax (beyond), postlative ex (beyond),
     temporal: temp. interlative ot (during), temp. allative og (till), temp. ablative os (from), temp. interessive ih (between), temp. pressive oh (before), temp. postessive ah (after),
     modal: abessive ar (without), pos. causative ut (thanks to), neg. causative it (because of), pos. consecutive um (for), neutr. consecutive om (for), neg. consecutive im (against), secutive ob (according), oppositive ox (on the other hand, opposite to), determinative od (except), alternative oc (every other), operative ok (about), commitative or (with).
     Their orthography is same as with connectional cases (house - kastiye, by house - kastiyap).


     A. does not contain possessive pronouns, possession is expressed either connecting of the personal pronoun after the gender determinative or using possessive genitive (rontykca - my dog, kastiye u imayu - father's house).


     A. has lost adjectives as an independent sentenial element. Stems of former adjectives serves to create composites of other sentenial elements, mostly nouns, verbs or adverbs.
     Special affixes, stems of former adjectives, name qualities (descriptive) and/or their possible relations to other qualities or circumstances (relative).
     Descriptive adhesion affixes are presented only in the positive (-kin - white), in the speech there is a possibility to use comparative and superlative to describe greater or the greatest "content" of the quality in the perception complex of the same type qualities (-kinyg - more white, whitest, contains more white colour that related perception; -kingi - the most white, the whitest).
     Relative adhesion affixes, on the other hand, are presented only in comparative or superlative or in relative form of positive (relative, -lataca - good for me). They may appear also in classical positive, but only with enumerations of the relation or in speech, if the relation is apparent from experience or tradition.

     Very often appears special way of quality naming or description of further relations  as a part of noun - univerbisation:
grammar of Arkian language (vs. Arkian grammar) - nomacidarke >< nomacide a cidarke, nomacideyark.
     Further former adjectives appears as parts of deadjective verbs, namely as  descriptive as relative adhesion affixes.

     Some adhesion affixes are able to create negation: understandable - -fimimyn, not understandable - -fimimnoja.

     Comparison serves to express the different measure of quality or its relation.
     Positive (-0) expresses generally the quality, descriptive adhesion affixes are used only in positive (white - -kan). Special determinatives enable to express different measure of descriptive adhesion affixes along with preserving of positive: increased measure (ag), great measure (ajag), decreased measure (eg), small measure (ejeg), admission of the greatest measure (agi).
     Relative adhesion affixes are used in relative form of positive (relative, good for me - -lataca), in the positive itself only with precise specification of the relation (two years old house - kastiyetunge dojuiri) or in speech, where is the relation given by experience or habit (old dog - rontutunge).
     Comparative (-g) compares the qualities and superlative (-gi) expresses absolute measure of relative adhesion affixes.
     A. also contains special determinative to expression of incomplete measure (defective, -vi).