Nouns of A. express independent objects, names of qualities
and actions, understood as objects (a beauty - umele, a run
- kride). Another possible division is on primary and/or composed
(building - kese + educate
- miteci > school - kesmitee),
authentic (dog - rontko) and/or derived (to smith - upanci,
a /black/smith - upano).
of nouns in A. according to gender is on inanimate e
and animate. Animate gender belongs to living organisms, inanimate
to objects and abstracts.
Animate nouns know,
according to their biological nature, natural gender definite - feminine
a, masculine o, juvenile u and
indefinite ko. More details about natural gender creation see this.
| upi-e [‘?upié]
| ront-a [‘rontá]
| ront-o [‘rontó]
| ront-u [‘rontú]
| ront-ko [‘rontkó]
juvenile particle can be further derived to express the gender of the offspring,
uo - male, ua - female (puppy /he/ - rontuo)
to demonstrative pronouns of other languages are demonstrative affixes,
connected to the gender particle.
is seen and is nearby the speakers, is marked with affix
-ba (rontuba - this dog), object, which is also
seen, but is placed in a distance from speakers, is marked with
affix -bak (rontubak - that dog). Object, which is
unseen, but speakers know it, is marked with affix -ma
(rontuma - yon dog).
affixes expresses relation of speaker of mentioned person to the subject
in noun. Relation affixes are the same as with personal pronouns (see here): father - imao, Father (God-Father)
Singular and plural
of A. differentiates singular and plural. Grammatical number
of A. moves from particularity (independent objects, names of materials,
names of qualities, abstracts, nonesuchs and single-member sets - singular)
to abundance of particularities, their intensity or repeating (plural).
is expressed using determinative la. If it is in the word presented
determinative la, the determinatives of inanimate noun e and
indifferent animate noun k disappear, but it remains determinatives
of animate gender (dog - ronto, dogs - laronto, book - upie,
books - laupi, tree - tlumko, trees - latlum).
the case, when with the counted object is presented the numeral, is the
numeral equal to the plural determinative (dogs - laronto, three
dogs - raxronto).
discrete and non-discrete sets of counted objects A. uses
enumerative quantifier it (five trees - dintlum, group
of five trees - dinittlum).
Special case are
the objects, which appears naturally in pairs, they are determined with
i, determinative similar to the determinatives of natural
gender (shoe - kalae, the pair of shoes - kalai, shoes (heap)
lailtale. They lifted up the hands. >< enrasapado muiltai.
He had a look on his hands.
Collectives and propagatives
There are two special
groups of nouns: collectives (countable sets of particularities) and
propagatives (actualities composed of more parts of the same kind
- e.g. holidays, uncountable sets of particularities). The first are created
using determinative laa (a tree - tlumko, trees - latlum,
greenwood - laatlum), plural can be expressed using the generic numeral. Those
second are expressed using determinative lai (a name - caxae,
nouns - laicaxa ), their plural is also expressed by generic numeral.
Literary A. combines
two types of declension, postpositional and connectional cases.
cases are further divided to direct (8): subjective - 0
(case of subject), nominative - bi, /a-, o-, e-/r
(naming), partitive - ke (ak), attributive
- an (-/o/r), possessive - un, dative - so
(indirect object, directional) (ek), accusative - mu
(direct object) (uk), instrumental - le (ik),
and indirect (1): vocative (address) - zi.
particles bi, ke, le and zi are affixes, standing
after noun or between noun and adhesion affix. Particles an and un do stay alone
before noun and particles mu and so are noun prefixes. The
determinatives of inanimate gender and indifferent animate gender disappear
in the presence of case particle (law - nomaye, law /instr./ - nomale,
new law - nomaesin, new law /instr./ - nomalesin, tree - tlumko,
of tree /partitive/ - tlumke, high tree - tlumkomorn, of
high tree /partitive/ - tlumkemorn).
The case determinatives
mu and so are used in the different way, they precede the
noun (or pronoun) pointing on its connection to the verb. If the noun has
adhesion affix the determinatives of inanimate gender and indifferent animate
muupi. - I am reading a book.
muupiesin. - I am reading
a new book.
Departure is declension
of names (particles are in parenthesis), these particles are different
and are written separately (John - Dszon, John /instr./ - Dszon
cases (48) are these:
illative er (into), allativ eg (to), circalative
ov (around), interessive at (between), interlative
et (between), extraessive as (out of), supraessive
am (on), supralative em (on), peressive ac
(above), perlative ec (above), ablative es (from),
subessive ak (under), sublative ek (under),
subsecutive ol (along), contraessive av (athwart),
contralative ev (athwart), preessive al (in
front), prelative el (before), translative ep
(over), exlative ef (off), transitive eh (through),
transversative ed (across), transessive ad (across),
adhesive ap (by, near), inessive az (in), juxtaessive
ab (beside), juxtalativ eb (beside), ellative
en (out, from), postessive ax (beyond), postlative
temp. interlative ot (during), temp. allative og
(till), temp. ablative os (from), temp. interessive ih
(between), temp. pressive oh (before), temp. postessive ah
ar (without), pos. causative ut (thanks to),
neg. causative it (because of), pos. consecutive um
(for), neutr. consecutive om (for), neg. consecutive im
(against), secutive ob (according), oppositive ox
(on the other hand, opposite to), determinative od (except),
alternative oc (every other), operative ok (about),
commitative or (with).
is same as with connectional cases (house - kastiye, by house - kastiyap).
A. does not contain
possessive pronouns, possession is expressed either connecting of
the personal pronoun after the gender determinative or using possessive
genitive (rontykca - my dog, kastiye u imayu - father's
A. has lost adjectives
as an independent sentenial element. Stems of former adjectives serves to
create composites of other sentenial elements, mostly nouns, verbs
stems of former adjectives, name qualities (descriptive) and/or
their possible relations to other qualities or circumstances
adhesion affixes are presented only in the positive (-kin
- white), in the speech there is a possibility to use comparative and superlative
to describe greater or the greatest "content" of the quality in the perception
complex of the same type qualities (-kinyg - more white, whitest,
contains more white colour that related perception; -kingi - the most
white, the whitest).
affixes, on the other hand, are presented only in comparative
or superlative or in relative form of positive (relative,
-lataca - good for me). They may appear also in classical positive,
but only with enumerations of the relation or in speech, if the relation
is apparent from experience or tradition.
Very often appears
special way of quality naming or description of further relations as
a part of noun - univerbisation:
grammar of Arkian language (vs. Arkian grammar)
- nomacidarke >< nomacide a cidarke, nomacideyark.
adjectives appears as parts of deadjective verbs,
namely as descriptive as relative adhesion affixes.
Some adhesion affixes
are able to create negation: understandable - -fimimyn, not understandable
to express the different measure of quality or its relation.
(-0) expresses generally the quality, descriptive adhesion
affixes are used only in positive (white - -kan). Special determinatives
enable to express different measure of descriptive adhesion affixes along
with preserving of positive: increased measure (ag), great measure
(ajag), decreased measure (eg), small measure (ejeg), admission
of the greatest measure (agi).
affixes are used in relative form of positive (relative, good
for me - -lataca), in the positive itself only with
precise specification of the relation (two years old house - kastiyetunge
dojuiri) or in speech, where is the relation given by experience or habit
(old dog - rontutunge).
(-g) compares the qualities and superlative (-gi)
expresses absolute measure of relative adhesion affixes.
A. also contains
special determinative to expression of incomplete measure (defective,
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