Verbs

Postverbs

     A. did adopt through relexification prefixes of Vitgan and transform them in the way of postpositions. These postverbs function as modal, appreciating and aspectual determinants. Postverbs are cumulative, they express some nuances and shifts in the verbs meaning: grammatical determinative - stem - postverb - grammatical determinative.

     er
     Used with motion verb expresses aiming of the action (to get to, to arrive at - rojumero, to go - rojumo).
     It may also express reaching the aim with accusative (to catch up on schoolwork - ermitero, to teach - ermito).
     State verbs express reaching of an inner limit (to grow up - irfero, to grow - irfo).
     Used with state verb it is also possible to express final phase of an action (to lead the fight to end
- kaperayero, to fight - kaperayo) or additional action, which leads to the finishing of an action (to buy st. to have bought everything you want - ucitero, to buy - ucito).

     am
     This one expresses aiming of an action inwards or on the surface, it is connected with pospositional case (to pile up, to apply on - sluriyamo, to carry - sluriyo).
     It also expresses touching the surface with action (to paint - kumamo, to colour - kumo).
     Using verbs of the change of a state, mechanical impact and some perfective verbs names this postverb low rate of the action with emphasis on incomplete performance (to start on cutting - uksetamo, to cut - ukseto).
     In connection with human operations verbs and medium voice this postverb expresses great rate of an action from the view point of the actor (to do a lot of running - kridamo, to run - krido). Without the medium voice the great rate is related to done (to talk enough - tojuamo, to talk - otoju).

     ac
     With verbs of possible space orientation expresses directing of the action according to postpositional case used (to entitle - ramiyaco, to write - ramiyo).
     With motion verbs expresses gaining or reaching of something as a consequence of the action, connected with accusative and/or dative (to take a short cut - rojumaco, to go - rojumo).
     Sometime it expresses superstandard rate (to overvalue - ojunaco, to value - ojuno).

     ix
     With verbs of concrete operations, taking place on surface, this postverb name general impact of the action (to wash down - vexixo, to wash - vexo).
     It also creates derived desubstantives in the sense of to equip something with that the noun describes or deadjectives with similar meaning (to tooth - nurmayixo, the tooth - nurmaye).

     ev
    With motion verbs expresses direction around the object, accusative connection (to go round - rojumyevo, to go - rojumo).
     With verbs of depicting expresses copying of contours (to make a copy with writing - ramiyevo, to write - ramiyo).

     es
     With motion verbs expresses separation (to leave - rojumeso, to go - rojumo).
     With verbs of creating of a values expresses retribution (to repay - romaleso, to pay - romalo).
     They also express opposite meaning than verbs with ex (to peel off - beruneso >< to glue up - berunexo, to glue - beruno).
     They express used with some processual verbs names taking the action to end without allowance of reaching of an assumed result, sometimes slides to express doing action slapdash (to recite st. slapdash - tojueso, to talk - otoju).

     im
     With verbs of physical action expresses touching the surface, with accusative or instrumental (to write all over - ramiyimo, to write - ramiyo).
     Sporadically expresses directing to subject, which something demands (pass /st. to sb./ - lujofimo, to give - lujofo).
     With different verbs also unspecified rate (to strengthen - taxtimo, to gain strength - taxto) or low rate of an action, it may follows another postverb (to grow a little tall - irfozimo, to grow - irfo).
     Other verbs, containing another postverb, may be further modified, this modification expresses progressive course of sequence of a same actions, it is connected only with plural or collectives (pick up - sluriyimo, to carry - sluriyo).
     With verbs of communication and with verbs of position both in medium express satisfaction from the action (to sit for a while - terfimo, to sit - terfo).

     ak
     It is simply modification with spacial meaning of direction 'under', dative connection (to sign - ramiyako, to write - ramiyo).
     Sometimes it expresses lack of dignity or corruption (to bribe - romalako, to pay - romalo).
    Serving as a rate measure expresses substandard rate (to underestimate - ojunako, to estimate - ojuno).

     eh
     With verbs of physical action expresses direction 'through', accusative connection or subsecutive or transitive, (to go through - rojumeho, to go - rojumo).
     With verbs of psychical operation expresses completeness of an action (to think out - vliteho, to think - vlito).
     Rarely indicates losses as a result of an action (to loss the game - oltiyeho, to play - oltiyo).
     With some verbs expresses initial phase of an action (to wake up - klibeho, to wake - klibo), with another defined time in which action goes (to trite - krideho, to run - krido).

      ic
     With motion verbs indicates motion over object (to fly over - zagico, to fly - zago), with processual verbs outdoing through this action (to talk over - tojuico, to talk - otoju).
     With verbs of human operations it is used to express repeated course of the same action (to retype - ramiyico, to write - ramiyo). Aimed operations indicates, that the action missed (to overlook - lenayico, to see - lenayo).
     With verbs of mechanic impact names division in two part as a consequence of the impact (to break in two - nafico, to break - nafo).
     With state verbs indicates get the action till the end (to stay the night - terotico, to sleep - teroto).
     With some verbs indicates superstandard rate (overeat - cutico, to eat - cuto).

     ep
     With motion verbs expresses directing before the subject that acts similar action (to forgo - rojumepo, to go - rojumo).
     With verbs expressing transport of objects modifies like translative (to come forward - tamayepo, to stand - tamayo).
     With verbs of human operations expresses preliminary action (to draw down a pattern - utoliyepo, to draw - utoliyo).

     ef
     With motion verbs indicates directing to contact with object, with allative (to come - rojumefo, to go - rojumo).
     It also used to express additional action (to add to - lujofefo, to give - lujofo) or incompleteness of an action without any special emphasis.

     uc
     With verbs of motion, but also with some verbs of human operations expresses eccentric direction of an action (to disperse - rojumuco, to go - rojumo).
     With verbs with unpleasant impact expresses total effect of the action (to destroy - kirituco, to beat - kirito).
     With verbs of psychical operations indicates determination of eventualities (to think over - vlituco, to think - vlito).
     Sometimes indicates reversal meaning of basic action, opposite to ex (to dispel - vamayuco, to cast spell - vamayo).
     It also indicates running the action into full intensity (to start running - kriduco, to run - krido).

     or
    With motion verbs means moving from up to down (to go down - rojumoro, to go - rojumo), with verbs of physical operations direction from the surface out (to cut off - uksetoro, to cut - ukseto).
     As a opposite to uc expresses concentric moving (to run together - kridoro, to run - krido).

     ap
     With verbs of physical operations expresses separation (to snap a bite - cutapo, to eat - cuto).
     Not very usual is expressing concentration of an action (to place - venayapo, the place - venaye).
     With verbs with unpleasant impact, but also with other verbs, expresses destroying or killing through this action (to run till dead - kridapo, to run - krido).
     There is also possibility to indicate ability to do something (to cover a distance - rojumapo, to go - rojumo).

     az
     This postverb is connected only with motion verbs with meaning of directing inwards (to enter - rojumazo, to go - rojumo).

     oz
     As a opposite to az indicates directing from inside (to go out - rojumozo, to go - rojumo).
     With verbs of physical operations expresses secession from whole (to pick out - taxozo, to take - taxo), with verbs of other operations indicates gaining of something or creation of something through the action (to hunt down - kridozo, to run - krido).
     Satisfaction from action operation is expressed using medium (to tire o.s. out playing - oltiyozo, to play - oltiyo).
     Combined postverb amoz indicates satisfaction from passive operations (to enjoy the view - lenayamozo, to see - lenayo).

     ux
     With motion verbs indicates direction upwards (to come up - rojumuxo, to go - rojumo) or modifies in the sense against s.t.

     en
     This postverb is only completive.

     ex
     With motion verbs expresses directing out of sight (to go out of sight - rojumexo, to go - rojumo), with some verbs of psychical or physical operations expresses integration (to write in - ramiyexo, to write - ramiyo, to dig in - umonexo, to dig - umono).
     With desubstantives it may also indicate covering the surface with action (to paint over - kumexo, to colour - kumo).
     With verbs of unpleasant impact indicates killing through the action. It also indicates starting of an action or satisfaction from useful action (to run about - kridexo, to run - krido).

Composites

Desubstantives
     These are verbs derived from nominal root and are further divided:

by agent
     Root is name of agent (animate) in connection with verb: leti - agent (to be friend with s.o. - letrivayo, make-friend).
     leti (let) - make, nerm (ner) - make noise.

by circumstance
     Root is name of circumstance (inanimate), which is the center of word plus verb: verb - circumstance (to throne - terfhirmo, sit-throne).

by means or by originator
     Root is name of means (inanimate), through which is acted: aroli (arol) - means (originator) (to be anchored - arolugayo, use-anchor).

by result
     Root is name of resulted state or substance: naga (nag) - result (to cast a shadow - nagtacayo, cause-shadow).

by transferred subject
     Root is name of substance, which is transferred: lujof (lu) - substance (to stiffen - luyecano, give-starch).

Deadjectives
     These are verbs derived from quality or relation and are further divided:

gaining of a quality
     Root is a quality, which is gained: bald - quality (to become white - baldkino, change-white).

manifesting of a quality
     Root is a quality, which is manifesting: ban - quality (to occur white - bankino, occur-white). If the verb is derived from the relative adhesion affix, it appears with this connection in the clause: (lataca - alike to me) Kastiyeba banumel soca. - I like this house.

giving of a quality
     Root is quality, which is given: lujof (lu) - quality (to bleach - lukino, give-white).

identification
     Deadjectives may in additionally take special identification determinatives, which further determine expressed natures. Determinative tes names that the qualities are same, determinative cer, that they are different. Such verbs are connected with personal pronoun not with it common function: Rontuba bankintesaca. - This dog is as white as my, or directly with identified using supplement connection: Rontuba bankintes a rontuca. - This dog is as white as my dog.

comparison
     Analogously with comparison verb contains comparison determinative together with demonstrative affix (or personal pronoun), clause connection is as in the case of identification: Rontuba banmegygma. - This dog is greater than yon, or directly with supplement connection: Rontuba banmegyg a rontuma. - This dog is greater than yon.
     If the subject is not expressed, the grammatical person is the last determinative: Banumelyg(da)da. - She is prettier (than she).

Deinterjectives
     Deinterjectives are not authentic composites and are created this way: interjection - o (to fizz - ssio).

Derivates

Deverbatives
      Deverbatives are verbal composites, used as a alternative to modal determinatives: verb - mood determinative (to want to go - rojumfuto).

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