HISTORY and EVOLUTION
of HIBERO-ARKIAN LANGUAGE GROUP
This section wants
to summarise important phases of history and evolution of
language culture on the territory of the Circle of Taksil.
PERIOD TILL IMPOSITION
Generally, from the
pre-Hiberan period there are only few written documents, deeper in past
dramatically lesser documents. These are the reasons, which have quite
complicate the research and results are adequate.
Most of the known
myths are originated in this period, but the written form of them came
at the first time in Arkian.
these myths are several isolated sentences and words in language, ascribed
to the nation of Lanbirst. Comparing these texts with some independent
sources, e.g. in the Vitgan Imperial archive, was this conclusion
Period till Vitgan
Also this period
is poor in materials. There are no other evidences of written documents,
pointing on using of any language, except probably using the Aiglerlanguage
in the first phase of Aigleran occupation of the Circle of Taksil.
of Vitgan as an official language after the took over was introducing of
another foreign language. From these times they are preserved few documents
in Vitgan language in Imperial archive and some individual
At the end of
the Vitgan colonization, after the return of the political émigré
community from Gapa and after the beginning of the resistance movement,
it has appeared new language
Kunagan. It was language of Gapa
people, brought as symbol of anti-Vitgan resistance.
Kunagan was very
simply: three cases, genitive (determinative gige before the word
or affix -or), dative (gig) and instrumental (gie).
Plural was created using affix
-t or -et, e.g. dog
- sibo, dogs - sibot,
canine - siboor.
Tenses were expressed using determinatives
ent, past, and etn,
future. It was written using special graphic system
All other morphological categories were expressed in irregular word forms.
principles appear also in Hiberan, we can assume, that these languages
might have very similar cultural background. On the other side, their vocabulary
is unrelated, so they do not belong to the same language group. All these
assumptions are, unfortunately cause of lack of correct informations, quite
Maram Talerd, who
has entered the throne are abdication of maram Camfour, has decided, with
renovation of state and society, to reform the official language.
Hiberan is the
first official language on the territory of the Circle of Taksil based
on aboriginal languages. It has lot of common with Kunagan, significant
are irregularities: to run - kig,
a running - krid.
We know only
little about local languages evolution, because it is for the first time
we met them in Hiberan. In spite of long period of oral tradition, this
language preserves characteristic irregularities in morphology. This surprising
finding is hard to explain. Language develops continually trough its using,
as it can be seen on Arkian. We cannot find the same language rigidity
in any other natural language, except of Kunagan. It seems to us, that
many meanings did not became general, their expressing became
obligatory but irregular, i.e. Hiberan is mostly ungrammaticallized
We suppose, that
relatively isolated residents in valley in difficult terrain have kept
their linguistic and cultural uniqueness not only thanks to resistance,
there are no loans at all - except of using the determinative una,
reminding Aigleran possessive case, but also thanks to specific part of
their culture, with Christianity parallel tradition of Xetaye Xevafolog
(The Way to the Fourth Worship).
besides the original settlement in Arodgerd quite a few Vitgan residents,
which have found here new home. Not Kunagan nor Hiberan were for them easy
languages and relatively soon the Vitgan influence on Hiberan rose, when
they tried to adapt it. So appeared collection of dialects of Hiberan -
named by the Vitgan, pre-Manakvan name of the Circle of Taksil.
regular creation of morphological categories and Vitgan inflective grammar.
we must state, that not from this not so distant age are preserved only
few documents in official Hibernan, but no in ksifigor.
With the arise of
Arkian state it emerge need for a new literary language, which allowed
revival of Arkian culture. Maram Jofres Mermond accredited for such assignment
the Institute for Arkian studies.
Arkian is constructed
the aim was, using the vocabulary of Hiberan and new grammatical model,
to create language suitable for cultural development of Ark, with consideration
to its history and presence.
In A. meet several
cultural impacts (Hiberan, Aigleran, Vitgan...), which creates evident
differences in speech, geographical and also social, in spite of the relative
low number of speakers.
The base of literary language was ksifigor,
group of dialects of Hiberan language, hiberoor cid. Arkian
and also Hiberan belongs to the Hibero-arkian group of languages.
of the Institute elaborate the basic scheme of ksifigor gathering the material
in the terrain and working with native speakers. It was quite wide conglomerate
of different rules, which change from region to region (the fight
- kapera, fighter, warrior - kaperan, kaperon, kaperak,
field - kaperana,
vena 'place' kapera,
A. borrows vocabulary
from Hiberan in the form of roots, also some determinatives, Vitgan
influenced mostly grammar.
they were included changes evolved in clash of local and Vitgan culture,
plus new grammatical concept. The main effort was to create regular, simply
and precise language. Simplicity should be reached using the minimum of
sounds of speech, according to Hiberian, mostly synthetic agglutinating
grammar, excluding irregularities. Such grammar should become supposition
In Ark, there
is a certain form of polyglosy - several forms of Arkian have somehow
exceeded the extend of dialects to almost individual languages: in importancy
rising New Arkian (esin cidark) and declining local dialects Ramarnamian
Ultnutian (cideb ultnutrob) and Pigosit.
The very special
cultural evolution in Ramarnam gave roots to new language - Derbizian,
which ties mostly on Hiberan and Kunagan in lexicology, and on Arkian in
grammar. This language is promoted for religious and local administration
purposes. Name of this language comes from the name of the new cultural
centre of Ramarnam - the city of
agglutinating language, opposite to Hiberan fully grammaticallized, drawing
upon roots from Hiberan and Kunagan word-stock.