HISTORY and EVOLUTION

of HIBERO-ARKIAN LANGUAGE GROUP

     This section wants to summarise important phases of history and evolution of language culture on the territory of the Circle of Taksil.

[Old Arkian], [Derbizian], [Comparative grammar], [Sample texts]



[pre-Hiberan period], [Hiberan period], [Arkian period]

PERIOD TILL IMPOSITION OF HIBERAN
     Generally, from the pre-Hiberan period there are only few written documents, deeper in past dramatically lesser documents. These are the reasons, which have quite complicate the research and results are adequate.

'Mythological' period
     Most of the known myths are originated in this period, but the written form of them came at the first time in Arkian.
     Peculiarity in these myths are several isolated sentences and words in language, ascribed to the nation of Lanbirst. Comparing these texts with some independent sources, e.g. in the Vitgan Imperial archive, was this conclusion proofed.

Period till Vitgan colonization
     Also this period is poor in materials. There are no other evidences of written documents, pointing on using of any language, except probably using the Aiglerlanguage in the first phase of Aigleran occupation of the Circle of Taksil.

Vitgan colonization
     Impositioning of Vitgan as an official language after the took over was introducing of another foreign language. From these times they are preserved few documents in Vitgan language in Imperial archive and some individual documents.

Resistance movement and liberation
     At the end of the Vitgan colonization, after the return of the political émigré community from Gapa and after the beginning of the resistance movement, it has appeared new language Kunagan. It was language of Gapa people, brought as symbol of anti-Vitgan resistance.
     Kunagan was very simply: three cases, genitive (determinative gige before the word or affix -or), dative (gig) and instrumental (gie). Plural was created using affix -t or -et, e.g. dog - sibo, dogs - sibot, canine - siboor. Tenses were expressed using determinatives ent, past, and etn, future. It was written using special graphic system kunagoor roda. All other morphological categories were expressed in irregular word forms.
     Because similar principles appear also in Hiberan, we can assume, that these languages might have very similar cultural background. On the other side, their vocabulary is unrelated, so they do not belong to the same language group. All these assumptions are, unfortunately cause of lack of correct informations, quite unsure.

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TALERD'S REFORM
     Maram Talerd, who has entered the throne are abdication of maram Camfour, has decided, with renovation of state and society, to reform the official language.
     Hiberan is the first official language on the territory of the Circle of Taksil based on aboriginal languages. It has lot of common with Kunagan, significant are irregularities: to run - kig, a running - krid.
     We know only little about local languages evolution, because it is for the first time we met them in Hiberan. In spite of long period of oral tradition, this language preserves characteristic irregularities in morphology. This surprising finding is hard to explain. Language develops continually trough its using, as it can be seen on Arkian. We cannot find the same language rigidity in any other natural language, except of Kunagan. It seems to us, that many meanings did not became general, their expressing became obligatory but irregular, i.e. Hiberan is mostly ungrammaticallized language.
     We suppose, that relatively isolated residents in valley in difficult terrain have kept their linguistic and cultural uniqueness not only thanks to resistance, there are no loans at all - except of using the determinative una, reminding Aigleran possessive case, but also thanks to specific part of their culture, with Christianity parallel tradition of Xetaye Xevafolog (The Way to the Fourth Worship).
     Nowadays live besides the original settlement in Arodgerd quite a few Vitgan residents, which have found here new home. Not Kunagan nor Hiberan were for them easy languages and relatively soon the Vitgan influence on Hiberan rose, when they tried to adapt it. So appeared collection of dialects of Hiberan - ksifigor, named by the Vitgan, pre-Manakvan name of the Circle of Taksil.
     Ksifigor introduces regular creation of morphological categories and Vitgan inflective grammar.
     Unfortunately we must state, that not from this not so distant age are preserved only few documents in official Hibernan, but no in ksifigor.

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ARKIAN
     With the arise of Arkian state it emerge need for a new literary language, which allowed revival of Arkian culture. Maram Jofres Mermond accredited for such assignment the Institute for Arkian studies.
     Arkian is constructed language, the aim was, using the vocabulary of Hiberan and new grammatical model, to create language suitable for cultural development of Ark, with consideration to its history and presence.
     In A. meet several cultural impacts (Hiberan, Aigleran, Vitgan...), which creates evident differences in speech, geographical and also social, in spite of the relative low number of speakers.
The base of literary language was ksifigor, group of dialects of Hiberan language, hiberoor cid. Arkian and also Hiberan belongs to the Hibero-arkian group of languages.
     Staff members of the Institute elaborate the basic scheme of ksifigor gathering the material in the terrain and working with native speakers. It was quite wide conglomerate of different rules, which change from region to region (the fight - kapera, fighter, warrior - kaperan, kaperon, kaperak, battle field - kaperana, vena 'place' kapera, kaperor roub 'field').
     A. borrows vocabulary from Hiberan in the form of roots, also some determinatives, Vitgan influenced mostly grammar.
     Creating Arkian, they were included changes evolved in clash of local and Vitgan culture, plus new grammatical concept. The main effort was to create regular, simply and precise language. Simplicity should be reached using the minimum of sounds of speech, according to Hiberian, mostly synthetic agglutinating grammar, excluding irregularities. Such grammar should become supposition of precision.
     In Ark, there is a certain form of polyglosy - several forms of Arkian have somehow exceeded the extend of dialects to almost individual languages: in importancy rising New Arkian (esin cidark) and declining local dialects Ramarnamian (ramarnamor), Ultnutian (cideb ultnutrob) and Pigosit.

Derbizian
     The very special cultural evolution in Ramarnam gave roots to new language - Derbizian, which ties mostly on Hiberan and Kunagan in lexicology, and on Arkian in grammar. This language is promoted for religious and local administration purposes. Name of this language comes from the name of the new cultural centre of Ramarnam - the city of Derbiz.
     Derbizian is agglutinating language, opposite to Hiberan fully grammaticallized, drawing upon roots from Hiberan and Kunagan word-stock.

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