COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR

of HIBERO-ARKIAN LANGUAGES


...under construction...

     [Phonetics], [Morphology], [Lexicology], [Syntax]



PHONETICS

[Sounds], [Orthography and Pronunciation]



Sounds

     All languages mapped on territory of Arodgerd used single sound alphabets, although these systems were quite different - cunagoor roda, hiberniir rad, Sejog-Kho or modified Latin.
Arkian contains relatively low number of phonemes (e.g. comparing to Vitgan only forty per cent), their low variability, probably due to mostly written praxis of this language.

23.1.1 Vowels
H-A. languages contain five vowels: a, e, i, o, u. Long vowels appears in pigosit and Asenutian: á, é, í, ó, ú, as a consequence of sound speech change (aja > á) and of inserting of the secondary accent on the vowels in ending syllables (kinor -> kinór), pigosit also brings disappearing of the voicedness of ending vowels (> ?).
In transliteration system of Arkian also appears all vowels of Vitgan: a, á, ä, e, é, i, í, o, ó, ö, u, ú, ü, y, ý.

23.1.2 Consonants
These eighteen consonants: b, p, c, d, t, g, k, h, x /ch/, l, m, n, r, v, f, z, s, j, are fixed in all H-A. languages. Characteristic modifications appears in dialects - aspiration (accompanied with pronunciation of voiced, sometimes also with voiceless, consonants) in pigosit and palatalization or postalveolization of consonants in Asenutian in the speech sound group CVjV.
The transliteration system contains in addition these consonants:
cz /è/, djj /ï/, njj /ò/, rz /ø/, ss /š/, tjj /ť/, sz /ž/.

23.1.3 Diphthongs
New twelve diphthongs: ae, oe, ue, ea, oa, ua, ao, eo, uo, au, eu, ou has appeared in Ramarnamian as a reaction on increased number of vowels of A. and not general adoption of j insertion.
 



Orthography and Pronunciation

The dictionary codification was the more important in Hibernian, due to its nature, more than morphological orthography, which came with Arkian and its evolvement.
Through the evolution it came many changes in orthography, not only in a context of pronunciation changes, but also with relinquishing of Sejog-Kho and transition to Latin (x > ks, ch > x, q > kv).
Changes in orthography due to pronunciation evolution lead to the nowadays literary Arkian, which fully replaced Old Arkian.
In the oldest times Arkian was pronounced as it was written (see below). Though the time some determinatives were simplified or omitted at all. So the short form, read form, was split up from the full form. This simplified form also served in the special cases for writing. Through the reform in the days of maram Icense de Inexise the Tenth it became a new literary norm of Arkian. One of the main characteristic was connecting of roots and determinatives of meaningful ensembles, at first with dash, later using colon, today with marked graphemes:
You will fly over our house.
Atu zag hi fo va ar le kasti ven le Uat.
Atu-zag-hi fo-va-ar-le kasti-ven-le-uat.
At-zag-hi va-r kasti-e-ac.
At:zag:hi va:r kasti:e:ac.
At:zag:hi va:r kasti:ac.
??????? ??? ????????
read:
originally:
[?atu ?zag ?hi `fo ?va ?ar `le ?kasti ?ven `le ?uat]
later:
[?at?zag?hi ?of?var ?kasti'e ?uat]
today:
[`at'zag'hi `var `kastij??].
Originally the determinatives and stems were pronounced separately, every as a independent word with accent on the first syllable. Their formal connecting with dash or colon only serves for better orientation in text. New trends was directed to compression of stems and determinatives into one word ensemble, to stable insertion of o and j (because of fluent pronunciation). This model was adopted from dialects - into the hiatus it was inserted j and between stem ended with consonant and consonantal determinative hiatus o. Departures were determinative fo, which was read [of] and omitted later, and determinative s and adverb comparison determinative, which are not separated with o.
Old Arkian, used today as ritual or ornamental language, differentiates from literary Arkian only in orthography, archaic postpositions and postverbs, the pronunciation is the same as in literary language.
Here are summarized changes bearing upon the language evolution of orthography:
nouns:
var - in the presence of natural gender determinative was not read, without it meaning was slightly changed to the determinative of general animate gender, pronounced /k/.
ven - it was changed to /e/, later disappeared in the presence of determinative la and case determinatives.
li - disappeared completely, remains only /e/.
ku, ka, ko, ki - are changed to /u, a, o, i/.
adjectives:
ar, er, ir, ur, or, sr - are changed to ending /r/.
pronouns:
fo - was read /of/ and later disappears.
id, ix - were changed to /d, x/ and has merged with natural gender determinatives.
verbs:
ent, atu - are shortened to /en, at/.
grammatical person determinatives - disappears if the subject is expressed.
nam, az, ep, kses - are shortened to /n, z, p, s/
de - are shortened to /d/ and disappears if there is appropriate postverb.
adverbs:
i, is - disappears completely.



MORPHOLOGY

There is fundamental difference between Hibernian and Arkian morphology. Hibernian, mostly ungrammaticalized language does not create parts of speech through regular derivation, but a new part of speech of similar origin with new word (to run - kig, the running - krid).

Opposite to this model Arkian creates parts of speech regularly, using system of roots and determinatives, originated in xifigor. Former Arkian was developed in the same line with alphabet, i.e. Sejog-Kho, roots and also determinatives created individual characters, which were treated as a individuals. Using of the language lead to many simplifications and transition to Latin.

[Nouns], [Adjectives], [Pronouns], [Numerals], [Verbs], [Adverbs], [Conjuctions], [Interjections]



24.1 NOUNS
24.1.1 Gender
In xifigor appeared the division of nouns according to gender to animate (living beings) and inanimate (objects and abstracts): the running - kride, the runner - kridan. As a expansion to animate nouns appeared morphemes of natural gender: masculine -0, feminine -a and juvenile -o.
These affixes were transformed to Arkian as ven (> e), var (> 0, k), ka (> a) and ko (> o). Even due to change of pronunciation of determinative var it started to use determinative ku (> u) for masculine gender and new meaning of determinative var (> k) itself (in the absence of natural gender determinative) to expression of indifferent or general natural gender.
Ramarnamian, strongly influenced by analytical structure of Hibernian and partially of Engelian, transformed gender affixes to articles. Also pigosit, influenced mostly by Engelian, has directly adopted its articles (??, ??, ??, ??), along with the differentiation of seen and unseen. Some loaned words differentiate gender in their form. Asenutian preserved determination of natural gender with infix, antecedent to infix of plural and case affix.

24.1.2 Number
Hibernian simply (and for once regularly) creates universal plural using determinative la, xifigor has also adopted this rule.
Arkian newly distinguished categories of countability and uncountability.
Countability: determinative la became of plural of countable nouns, another plural indicator is ordinal numeral. Special case are nouns, which appears naturally in pair, for which is used determinative ki (> i), very close in properties to natural gender determinatives.
Ramarnamian creates newly plural determinative prefixing l- to the article (le, la...), dual is created using article i. Asenutian knows infix -l- or -i-. Pigosit does not know dual, plural is mirrored in the modification of article ?? > ?? plus natural gender derivations (??, ??, ??).
Uncountability: this property comprehend only Old Arkian with determinative li, adopted by pigosit as ?? and ??.
Only Arkian knows collectives (laja) and propagatives (laji), in dialects remain preserved only in lexicology. Plural is created using generic numerals.

24.1.3 Declension
Hibernian knows only one morphologically given case, possessive genitive una, adopted from Engelian. Case properties were determined through the word order (the first noun was subject, the second object, the third mostly with preposition was indirect, dative form).
Xifigor determines cases using affixes, prepositions were, according to Vitgan, connected with specific cases (runner - kridan, runner (instr.) - kridanel, with runner - tui kridanel).
This system was not uniform and regionally dependent. Chosen case affixes were impositioned in literary Arkian (completely new was nominative determination), case relations to postpositions were simplified: nominative - case of subject or title, genitive - partitive or possessive case, dative - case of indirect object, case of postposition expressing movement, accusative - direct object case, locative - case of adverbial attributes of time or place + related postpositions and instrumental - case of adverbial attributes of mode + related postpositions.
Later, on the territories where do not live Vitgans (Ramarnam and Tasservan), became to disappear the connection of postposition to case, so it came to diffentiation of connectional and postpositional cases accompanied with disappearing of postpositions and of inanimate gender determinative if the case determinative is presented. In Arkian the genitive determinative una has split into attributive form a and possessive form u. Another change, it appears only in dialects (Ramarnamor and pigosit) was creation of connectional cases (dative, instrumental) with determinatives used in literary Arkian for declension of names. In Asenutian the connections of cases to prepositions returned to the Vitgan model (with dog - ront ku var so Pem
> ront-u-so ??? > ???????, es ??????).



24.2. ADJECTIVES
Hibernian differentiates authentic (white - kano) and derived (dog - ront, canine - rontor) adjectives. Regular derivation of derived adjectives using affix -r was transited into xifigor as a general adjective marker (white - kanr, canine - rontr) and from there also to Old Arkian and its dialects. Only pigosit again knows derived and authentic adjectives. Arkian differentiates in syntax descriptive adjectives (only in positive) and relative (only in comparative and superlative). On the boundary of the literary language, properties of adjectives are close to the Old Arkian and dialects.
In the original concept of Arkian can be often seen special way to name quality and/or its relation as a part of noun called univerbization. This way is based on the classical lexicological algorithm of Arkian - hierarchic arrangement of word of it roots:
grammar of Arkian - ??????????? >< ???????? ? ???????,
???? ????????.
The newest trend is adhesion of adjectives either to
verbs (deadjectives) or nouns (???????? ???? ><

???????????).

24.2.1 Gender
Hibernian does not express gender of adjectives, it appeared at first in xifigor (white (he) - kanr, white (she) - kanar) and therefrom in Arkian, in dialects only in Asenutian.

24.2.2 Comparison
Hibernian combines with comparison affix for comparative -(r)g and auxiliary word sei for superlative (umelor (beautiful) > umelorg > sei umelorg). Xifigor and Arkian replaced auxiliary determinative of superlative for expanded affix -(r)gi.



24.3 PRONOUNS
24.3.1 Personal pronouns
Hibernian uses personal pronouns as articles establishing relations in talk, every pronoun does have four forms - nominative, merged genitive and accusative, merged dative and locative plus instrumental form: speaker (I) - can, vami, von, vu, listener (thou) - hi, heti, hir, hau and mentioned person: he, it - pid, sai, si, sib, she - pam, su, seb, san, they - pin, sok, sam, son, speaker plus other persons (we) - vag, sa, sir, suk, listener plus other persons (you) - mei, mid, mao, men. Xifigor adopted only nominative forms, third persons of singular and plural are derived according to their gender (can, hi, pid, pad, pod, pin, pan, pon, vag, mei), declension is regular.
Constructing Arkian we have done some adaptations of personal pronouns of xifigor, in essence they were shorted, third person plural pronoun is new construction (??, ??, ??, ??, ??, ??, ??, ??, ??, ??, ??, ??, ??). Speciality of nowadays A. is merging of the natural gender determinative and the pronouns of the third person, which has been transferred into all dialect.
Personal pronouns varies in dialects, mostly in third persons (Ramarnamian du > u(d), for pigosit is typical preinsertion of f(a,o) syllable with all pronouns which are only vowels in Ramarnamian: ? > ?? and suchlike) and also sound shift in the first person pronoun (?? > ??).
Newly in Arkian appears expressing of level of relations between communicating persons, it was fully adopted by Asenutian and deferential form also by pigosit, Ramarnamian uses, adoption from Engelian, emphasize the deference with capital letter of personal pronoun in text.
Special pronoun nam of Hibernian is discussed in the voice chapter (see 24.5.2).

24.3.2 Gender
At first in Arkian did appear possibility to express gender of pronouns generally using natural gender determinatives.

24.3.3 Possessive pronouns
Hibernian did use special, undeclinable forms of possessive pronouns (vura, hem, cai, cisa, sel, mesi, cib), xifigor came with creating them from personal pronouns using adjective determinative (canr, hir, pidr, vagr, meir, pinr), which model was adopted in Old Arkian and dialects. Arkian has come to affiliate the personal pronoun to noun as a possessive determinative.
Special possessive pronoun is reflexive possessive pronoun. Hibernian knows this type of pronoun, not only in the possessive form tabi, but also as reflexive personal pronoun - may under influence of Vitgan, again in four forms (tach, tami, tano, te). This model was also in xifigor, but Arkian did not adopt it. Here its form came from medium voice determinative (ija). In Asenutian again, as a linguistic analogy, became ija reflexive personal pronoun.

24.3.4 Interrogative pronouns
Former, undeclinable, Hibernian forms of interrogative pronouns (who - ubi, what - chund, which, wheter - ukla, what kind of - cefi, whose - dif) were adopted as declinable in xifigor and from there with some adaptations in Arkian (???, ??, ???, ???, ???), pronoun bi has the same base as a determinative of nominative in Old Arkian.
Pigosit uses different interrogative pronouns, created similarly to the third persons of personal pronouns (bi > ?ó, ??? > ?ó?).
Xifigor newly used connection of interrogative pronoun with determinative una as a relative pronoun, which starts subordinate clauses, this way appears also in Arkian, but is not preserved in dialects.
Another type of pronouns, connected with interrogative pronouns, are indefinite pronouns. Like in Hibernian, also in Arkian are they derived from basic forms, but the ways differs in details: somebody - suh ubi, ????, nobody - saf ubi, ???? etc.

24.3.5 Demonstrative pronouns
Also here were former Hibernian demonstrative pronouns (that - hib, yon - hil, self - tuf) with some adaptations transferred in Old Arkian (that - hib(a), this - hibak, yon - him, such - hil, self - ija), new Arkian has compressed them into the form of demonstrative affixes (that - -ba, this - -bak, yon - -ma). Only pigosit uses in causes of than
and this pronouns modified articles (???, ?????).

24.3.6 Identificative pronouns
Arkian borrowed partially adapted identificative pronouns of Hibernian and xifigor in the form of affixes to deadjective verbs: same - heso > tes, other - cerma > cer. Dialects use the affixes as a independent pronouns.



24.4 NUMERALS
24.4.1 Ordinal numerals
Xifigor, and also Arkian, did borrowed the ordinal numerals of Hibernian without change (departure: fel > fol), it came to simplification and regularization (ending -n and -b by high numerals through relex from Vitgan) of original Hibernian system of higher numerals creation (lert (tvit) - lert, drid - drid, berbi - berb, milibi - ralib, miliort - ralin). Arkian uses for numeral creation the adverb model.
Simply creation of numeral of Hibernian and xifigor (40 - fel lert, fol lert) was amended in Old Arkian with determinative it (fol it lertt), which is not preserved not
in literary Arkian nor dialects (fol it lertt > ???????,

lertfol, follert, ???????)?

24.4.2 Cardinal numerals
Similarly to possessive pronouns, xifigor created, in opposite to irregular forms of Hibernian (ruku, foma), cardinal numerals using adjective determinative (rachr, folr), which way was also adopted by Arkian (????, ????).
Generic numerals, created with connection of cardinal numeral with una determinative, appeared not until Arkian with expressing of collectives and propagatives. This construction was inspired by relative pronouns.

24.4.3 Multiple numerals
Generally, Hibernian did use for each category of multiple numerals unique, irregular forms, regularity appears at first in xifigor and was with minor adaptations transferred in Arkian and its dialects.

24.4.4 Indefinite numerals
Also here were forms of xifigor transferred in to Arkian, while old Hibernian ones appear in local varieties of Ramarnamian (thus much - herp, ???, several - sanu, ????, lots of, plenty - vitam, ???, few, little - vene, ???).

24.4.5 Gender
Arkian, according to xifigor, expresses gender of pronouns generally using natural gender determinatives.



24.5 VERBS
24.5.1 Conjugation
Conjugation is same in all hibero-arkian languages, except of Asenutian: verb + personal pronoun (or reverse) (I
go - can roum, ???????, ca roum, ?? ??? >< rojumc).
In Arkian the personal pronoun, used as person determinative, is used only if there is not clearly expressed subject.

24.5.2 Voice
Relation between the acting one and action was already expressed in Hibernian and xifigor: reflexive personal pronoun, in Arkian using medium voice, or passive voice in all languages using special determinative, pronoun in Hibernian, nam. We can today hardly say what was the original meaning of this pronoun, it was used to express general subject (do not smoke here /better: here it is not smoked/ - numal nam so ulep), together with inanimate noun also passive voice.
The nam pronoun as general subject appeared again in a general natural gender determinative k, the pronoun it-self was preserved in Arkian as a determinative of passive voice or general grammatical person n and in phonemics variants (nam, -n-, ??) in dialects.
Arkian introduced medium voice (ija) as a contradiction to reflexivity of Hibernian and xifigor. Reflexivity again appeared in Asenutian, very similar to Vitgan (some verbs are only reflexive). Medium voice did not take hold in Ramarnamian and pigosit, where it became common special formula, subject + predicate + pronoun related to subject, to express medium voice.

24.5.3 Aspect
Aspect knows verbs not before xifigor, imperfective verbs were followed with determinative de, in Arkian it was used in the opposite way and shortened to d, to create perfective aspect. It was directly preserved only in Asenutian, newly appears expressing of imperfectivness in pigosit in a connection of verbs with former adverb ??.

24.5.4 Tense
According to Cunagan model the Hibernian started to regularly derived verbal tenses using special determinatives ent, atu. Based on the existence of irregular forms of the verb kan (kim, kori), preserved in Ramarnamian, we assume this adoption.
Whole apparatus was transferred into Arkian (ent > en, atu > at), where it was expanded with system of tense sequence (basic tense - az, forecoming tense - ep). This system was adopted by Ramarnamian only, may be due to larger number of Engelian residents. This system may express perfectivity of actions (it newly appears auxiliary word kan).
Iterative determinative ed was incorporated into Arkian, but did not pass into any dialect.

24.5.5 Infinitives
Hibernian does not have any special infinitive verb form, not even dictionary one, this appears at first in Arkian (determinative o), other infinitive forms were adopted through construction: transgressives from Vitgan (af, uf), supine, gerund (kses > ?) and gerundive (nam kses > ??) from Baznian. They were transferred in Asenutian (-o, -af, -uf, -s, -ns), but Ramarnamian and pigosit preserve only dictionary infinitive form also to express supine (o, oo), gerund is paraphrased using subordinary clause and gerundive using connection of dative determinative with substantivized verb in passive.

24.5.6 Negative
Negation in Hibernian was conducted using determinative so staying before the negated verb, also in xifigor. This determinative was used to create generally negative in these languages.
Arkian introduced, because of uninterchangeability, negative determinative oa (oja), with the same function as Hibernian so.

24.5.7 Mood
System of verbal moods was not rich in Hibernian, grammatically it was differentiating universal indicative, serving with exclamation mark also as imperative and conditional with determinative kon.
In xifigor newly appears imperative, arose from vocative case zi, and optative ah.
New model of moods was introduced in Arkian, dividing them on will expressing or not.
All dialects contain some mood determinatives of Arkian (imperative zi, -z-, conditional kon and optative ae, aje), other were transformed into modal verbs.
Modal verbs were known in Hibernian, into Arkian and its dialects were they transferred shortened as modal determinatives, in dialects they again appear as independent verbs (tete > tet, arin > ari, futo > fut, vedi > ved, fima > fim, imit > imi, etc.).

24.5.8 Verbal pre- and affixes
Arkian has adopted through relexification using of Vitgan verbal prefixes as postverbs, which serves in the verb lexicology, postverbs are used also in all dialects.



24.6 ADVERBS
The greatest changes were done in the case of adverbs, conception of adverbs is some in Arkian, other in Hibernian or even in xifigor.
Old forms of some adverbs of xifigor were used in construction of lexicological determinatives of adverbs (where - ut), adverbial stems are completely new.

24.6.1 Comparison
Alike to adjectives Hibernian combines for comparative affix -g and determinative sei superlative. Xifigor and Arkian replaced this determinative with affix -gr.



24.7 CONJUNCTIONS
Conjunctions accurately mimic the basic division of Hibero-arkian languages: natural conjunctions of Hibernian and xifigor and constructed of Arkian. For their construction were used modified original Hibernian conjunctions (that: hab > ha).


24.8 POST- AND PREPOSITIONS
Prepositions created very important part of Hibernian grammar, they determine, along with word order, properties of nouns as parts of speech, they determined so called prepositional cases (above - suti, peressive and perlative).
Xifigor took Hibernian prepositions with case connections of Vitgan (above - suti + accusative).
Arkian has newly created system of postpositions, derived from adverbs (above: utsag - ut + sag), these came through shortening and anagraming, the original sense disappears slowly (utsag > uat). On the other hand new case connection appeared depending on former adverbs (utsag + dative = whereto? above, utsag + locative = where? above) The newest reform has totally reconstructed the concept of postpositions to simply syllable VC form with no connection to previous systems. Postposition of Arkian, which totally merge with case determinatives, became prepositions in its dialects, in Asenutian again appears original case connection of Vitgan.


24.9 INTERJECTIONS
Introduction of determinative oks is new in Arkian, interjection were not morphologically differentiate in Hibernian or xifigor.


25. LEXICOLOGY
Fundamental difference in lexicology between Hibernian and xifigor, and Arkian with its dialects on the other side is evident from this historical course - Hibernian used individual forms for the meanings (to run - kig, the running - krid, runner - kord). Xifigor at first showed ability to derive new meaning from general roots (to run - krid, the running - kride, runner - kridan).
Lexicology of Arkian, synthetic language, was mostly inspired by Vitgan and Engelian - word are created by means of composition using prefixes, but also specific derivation (grammatical determinatives, which it-self do not have meaning). Between Arkian and its dialects are in lexicology only minor differences: postdicts were changed to predicts
(??????????? > pidradajonk > dajon-pidra-k), some of the

lexocological roots are shortened (?????????? > ropolcerteb,
e ropolcert > ropolceb, e ropolce), massive loans of nouns in pigosit and their penetration into other parts of speech
(?????????? > ?? ????, ?????????? > ??????? >< ??????).
Along with Ramarnamian, where is their appearance usual,
they appear Hibernian words (???????????) also in literary
Arkian.



26. CLAUSE COMPOSITION
Nature of hibero-arkian languages is the reason why there are differences in the clause composition of Hibero-arkian languages. It is quite diverse formation: mostly analytic isolating (Hibernian, Ramarnamian, pigosit and Gerdian), Arkian is synthetic agglutinating, and xifigor along with Asenutian inflective languages. The place of the word in the clause in of the great importance, emphasis is put on the verb and auxiliary words, stating the meaning.

[BACK]



[BACK TO CONTENTS]